Fox Terrier Smooth
FCI standard Nº 12
|Section 1 Large and medium sized Terriers
|Working trial optional
Acceptance on a definitive basis by the FCI
|Wednesday 26 June 1963
Publication of the official valid standard
|Sunday 30 October 2016
|Tuesday 07 February 2017
En français, cette race se dit
|Fox Terrier à poil lisse
Diese Norm ist in deutscher Sprache sichtbar
|Fox Terrier Glatthaar
En español, esta raza se dice
|Fox Terrier Pelo liso
In het Nederlands, wordt dit ras gezegd
|Fox Terrier Gladhaar
Brief historical summary
|The Fox Terrier in booth forms, Smooth and Wire, is from British origins and probably owes its existence to the same types of dog which produced both the Bull Terrier and the Black and Tan (now Manchester) Terrier. Uniformity of type was established in the late 1800s and the original standard for the Fox Terrier drawn up in 1876.
One of the most lively and alert of terriers, refinement to his present show excellence has not allowed him to become unsound. Capable of standing up to any amount of exercise, always ready to deal with rats, rabbits, and, of course, foxes.
|Active and lively, bone and strength in small compass, never cloddy or coarse. Neither leggy nor too short in the leg, standing like a well made, short-backed hunter, covering a lot of ground.
Behaviour / temperament
|Alert, quick of movement, keen of expression, on tiptoe of expectation. Friendly, forthcoming and fearless.
|Flat, moderately narrow. Gradually decreasing in width to eyes.
|A little stop apparent.
|Jaws, upper and lower, strong and muscular, falling away only slightly below eyes. This portion of foreface moderately chiselled out, so as not to go down in a straight line like a wedge.
Jaws and teeth
|Jaws strong with a perfect, regular and complete scissor bite, i.e. upper teeth closely overlapping the lower teeth and set square to the jaws.
|Dark, moderately small, as near as possible circular in shape but not prominent. Expression bright and intelligent.
|Small, V-shaped and dropping forward close to cheek, not hanging by side of head. Fold of ear above level of skull. Leather of moderate thickness.
|Clean and muscular, without throatiness, of fair length and gradually widening to shoulders.
|Short, level and strong without slackness.
|Powerful, very slightly arched.
|Deep, not broad. Fore ribs moderately sprung, back ribs deep.
|Previously customarily docked.
Docked: Set on rather high and carried gaily but not over back or curled. Of good strength.
Undocked: Set on rather high and carried gaily but not over back. As straight as possible. Tail of moderate length to give balance to the dog.
|Long and sloping, well laid back, fine at points, cleanly cut at withers.
|Legs from any angle must be straight showing little or no appearance of an ankle in front. They should be strong in bone throughout.
|Small, round and compact. Pads hard and tough, toes moderately arched and turning neither in nor out.
|Strong and muscular, quite free from droop or crouch.
|Long and powerful.
|Good turn of stifle.
|Hocks well let down.
|Small, round and compact. Pads hard and tough, toes moderately arched and turning neither in nor out.
Gait and movement
|Fore- and hindlegs carried straight forward and parallel. Elbows move perpendicular to body, working free of sides, stifles neither turning in nor out and hocks not close. Good drive coming from well flexing hindquarters.
|Straight, flat, smooth, hard, dense and abundant. Belly and underside of thighs not bare.
|White should predominate, all white, white with tan, black and tan or black markings. Brindle, red or liver markings highly undesirable.
Size and weight
Height at withers
|Not exceeding 39 cm in dogs, bitches slightly less.
|Males 7,5 - 8 kgs, females 7 - 7,5 kgs.
|• Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog and its ability to perform its traditional work.
• Faults listed should be in degree of seriousness.
|Aggressive or overly shy dogs.
|• Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
• The above mentioned faults when occurring to a highly marked degree or frequently are disqualifying.
• Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
• Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.
|The Fox Terrier is the most prominent representative of an essentially British canine family: Terriers. It is also the first of them that was well defined, which is not to harm its prestige.
Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History, mentioned the existence of small dogs pursuing their prey to the ground, which he called "Agassins." The Romans had also been able to observe these dogs by approaching Brittany - the Great - in the 1st century AD It is therefore possible that the Terriers are truly from the British Isles.
However, Terrier-like dogs, similar to Bassets or Basenji-type dogs, have been noted on Egyptian frescoes from the Middle Kingdom period, from which it can easily be deduced that this type of dog would be much older than the "Agassins". The British Isles, rich in tin needed to make bronze, maintained regular relations with the countries of the Mediterranean basin. So it is not impossible that Phoenician navigators who acted as intermediaries in the trade with the Anglo-Saxons have made known to the latter various breeds of dogs, such as the Mastiffs, the Greyhounds and the ancestors of the Terriers. Egypt was perhaps the cradle of Terriers, although we had too little evidence to confirm this thesis.
Still, the Terriers were well established in Britain in the sixteenth century. Indeed, their existence is reported in 1570 by Johannes Caius, the physician of Queen Elizabeth Ire, who completed the work of the Swiss naturalist Conrad Gesner, Historia animalium, describing the types of dogs that were then widespread in England. Canibus Britannicis, a modest contribution in principle, was a great success, both with the queen and the lords, and with a large number of simple subjects, since the work, which had been written in Latin, was translated into English from 1576 and constantly republished until 1880, which shows the very high quality of the descriptions provided by Dr. Joannes Caius - or John Keys of his English name.
About the Terrier, the scholar wrote: "There are also dogs for fox or badger hunting, and we call them" terrars "because they get into the ground by terrifying, exciting, and biting. game, until they cut it in pieces with their teeth, even within the earth; or they draw it by force from the dark meanders of the damp dens and the closed caves; or they are so frightened that they push him to suddenly leave the refuge to seek another that is not attacked; and the animal, fox, badger or whatever, is finally trapped in the instruments and nets arranged for this purpose next to the opening of the burrow. And Joannes Caius classified the "terrars" among the gentlemen's dogs, alongside hounds and greyhounds.
Underground hunting, it should be pointed out, was not only practiced in Britain, but also in other countries. Indeed, in a Merovingian text dated 630, we find the mention of a dog hunting underground called Bibarhund and which was to be considered as a race of great value since his death (by hand of man) was punished by a heavy fine. Moreover, in the fourteenth century, Gaston Phoebus also evoked hunting underground and Henri de Ferrieres spoke of the "dog tanier" which "jut out" the fox of his den.
The first description of the digging is also French. It is found in the famous Traité de la Vénerie, published in 1550 and written by Jacques du Fouilloux, a Poitevin lord. Later, in 1683) Jacques Epée de Sélincourt did another one in his work Le Parfait Chasseur. As to George Turberville's treat- ment published in 1575) he expressly stated (joining J. Caius) that in Great Britain, as in France, the land was an integral part of the art of venery. Let us note in passing that this last treatise (Noble Art of Hunting or Hunting), although written by an English author, was written in the French language, which suggests that venery was then an essentially French art. We also know that James I of England sent about 1600 Terriers to the court of France.
However, we do not know what type of dog was used for digging. If there are any indications that it was in France basset dogs from common dogs, it seems, according to Turberville, that the English preferred smaller dogs more lively and more biting. In fact, all these "terrars" had to vary considerably from one terroir to another, which would also explain the scarcity of ancient descriptions of these dogs, while the presentations on the digging abound from the early Middle Ages. René Depoux, a great specialist in underground hunting, suggests that this activity should not be an adequate reason for selection, as very diverse dogs could be successfully used for digging, provided, however, that their size should be as small as possible. that their courage was great.
This hunt was dangerous and made many wounded, not to mention the dead, and it was often necessary to use the dogs of the populace like ratiers and other dogs of modest size, to avoid that the more noble breeds are decimated.
The digging, long and often exhausting work, was finally only one of the minor branches of the hunt, and he found himself somewhat neglected by the great lords monopolized by the big game. On the other hand, the little gentle countrymen, among whom the most passionate hunters were recruited, often practiced the digging with, besides, the concern to preserve the game on their grounds and thus to destroy the predators.
The Burrow was progressively promoted in England, when, as a result of the rarefaction of the deer, the hunt began to evolve towards the foxhunting, which is a sort of speed race started between Master Goupil and the hounds and followed by the gentry, who had the opportunity to jump all sorts of obstacles and to gallop through the countryside. The fox, quick and smart, managed to reach his burrow more often, and it was necessary to dislodge it as soon as possible, so as not to interrupt the hunt and allow the riders to continue their equestrian exercise.
We have many writings on this evolution of the landslide - as an auxiliary but indispensable activity of the fox's run -, notably those of Nicholas Cox, in The Gentleman's Recreation (1677), Jacobs (Compleate Sportsman, 1718), as well as the Sporting Dictionary of 1803.
Two primordial types of Terriers were used: Basset Terriers, with a thick, shaggy coat, were found in rugged and wild areas, where the masters followed their dogs on foot, while the longer-legged Terriers were employed. where horse-hunting was practiced and where these dogs had to be able to follow the sustained hound train.
Thomas Bell, in his History a] British Quadrupeds, published in 1837, confirms the existence of these two types, and he describes on the one hand an English Terrier, with smooth hair, of symmetrical and fine forms, with black dress and fire and, on the other hand, a Scottish Terrier, whose limbs are short, thick, with rough hair, of varied colors, but most often dirty white or gray.
The true selection of the Fox Terrier began in earnest towards the end of the 18th century, despite what Reverend Rosselyn Bruce, one of the earliest specialists in the breed, said he had no information about this breed. Before 1850, no doubt, Bruce had not noticed, for example, a painting by Sartorius the Elder dating back to 1796, which unquestionably represents a black and fire Fox Terrier, just as he had no knowledge of a memoir by Peter Beckford who, before 1800, claimed to have possessed Black and White, Black and Fire Terriers.
The Fox Terriers are from the Old English Black and Tan Terriers, who were also at the origin of the Manchester Terrier, which were crossed with Beagles, White Terriers that are also known under the name of Old English White Terriers, and probably with the old Bulldog type, then very different from the one we know today and which was often small (besides, we were then working to eliminate the physical characteristics fighting dog). These crosses were essentially to give the dog a predominantly white dress, more identifiable and avoiding unpleasant confusion with the fox. They also tended to produce a small dog, with a lot of "guts", but also built for speed and having bottom, able to support the train of hell imposed on him by the Fox Hounds, Moreover, the Terriers had to demonstrate insurance and courage to be respected hounds that do not spare them.
The current Fox Terrier comes directly from these dogs working in the packs of current dogs: the big ancestors come from almost all. So, Old Jock came from the Grove Hunt crew, his father, Jack, belonged to Captain Percy William, master of the Rufford crew, and his mother, Grove Pepper, was the bitch's quill Jack Morgan, of the crew Grove Hunt. Old Trap came from Oackley Hunt, Joe from Belvoir Hunt, and Nettie, one of the females that had a very strong influence on the breed, came from Grove Hunt. Finally, there is only Tartar, another great ancestor of the race, who appears to be of uncertain origin; we think it was part of the breeding of Mr. Stevenson, specializing in the Bull Terrier.
The Smooth Hair Fox Terriers were the first to be showcased and recognized as early as 1863 in Birmingham, as they had the advantage of being prized by chic people, most of them fox hunting enthusiasts. Thanks to the breed historian Desmond O'Connel, who published a well-documented chapter in The New Book of the Dog in 1907, the first breeders of this breed can be accurately known, and the case is rare enough to deserve to be underlined. There was a certain Mr. Murchison who bought Old Jock and exhibited it in 1862; Mr. Gibson owned Tyke and Old Foiler; Mr. Luck Turner owned dogs from Belvoir Hunt and produced the first champions: Joe, Olive and Spice.
A first standard for the Fox Terrier (including both varieties) was born in 1876 and the Fox Terrier Club was created the same year on the initiative of Mr. Harding Cox. It is also one of the oldest special clubs, and among its founding members are breeders who subsequently enjoyed a great reputation, as was the case of Mr. Burbridge (affix Hutton): at his death in 1892, the hundred and thirty terriers of his kennel were auctioned off, and a colossal sum was collected: the Hutton Tartar champion, in particular, was awarded for a record price. We must also mention Mr. Clarck, Mr. Redmond and Mr. Vicary, these breeders who engaged a fight as fierce as courteous to produce champions of great price, without forgetting Conan Doyle, who was a breeder emeritus, when Sherlock Holmes and Moriarty leave him time!
The Fox Terrier in Poil Lisse, since it is of this type that we are talking about so far, participated, parallel to his career dog, to a somewhat forgotten episode, the rabbit coursing, dog sport for which it was required in because of its velocity. However, we tried to increase his speed even further, and to do this, a breeder had the idea of crossing his Fox with small Greyhounds, giving birth to really unbeatable subjects. The results of these crosses produced dogs more and more "Greyhounds" and less and less "Fox", which were called "cohippets". The Whippet (whose first Kennel Club records date back to 1892) was soon to be born, and our Fox is indisputably one of its ancestors.
The Fox Terrier at Poil Dur, like his counterpart in Poil Lisse, also has his own historian, Walter S. Glynn, who wrote a chapter on race in The New Book of the Dog of 1907. At the time of the first exhibitions, this dog was less honored than the Fox in Poil Lisse, because it was first selected by modest breeders, especially in the north of England, who did not have the opportunity to make him a great publicity. The recognition of the Hard Coat came only ten years after that of Poil Lisse, but it was the starting point of a reputation that would take him far.
Among the first great breeders of Fox in Poil Dur, it is necessary to quote MM. Maxwell and Cassel, Carrick, George Raper, Warton, and the Duchess of Newcastle (affix of Notts), who contributed to the success of Le Poil Dur, including a "fashioriable" dog, and who produced the first great champion, Cackler of Notts.
Until the end of the First World War, Fox Smooth Hair retained the palm of popularity, before the Fox Hairy does not take it in 1920: the trimming, which gives it its characteristic silhouette, had indeed been developed, which did not fail to enthuse the general public and the amateurs of exhibitions which had thus matter to demonstrate their know-how.
By the end of the last century, the Fox Terriers were probably the most widespread dogs in the Channel, constituting less hunting aids than companion dogs, as can be seen in particular from reading the writings (published in 1899 ) of Alfred de Sauvenière, to whom we owe a lot of information about the rabbit coursing, which he introduced with some success in our country. "Everywhere in the streets, in the parks, on the walks, we see these little quadrupeds, adorned with beautiful necklaces of white or yellow leather, clean, shiny hair, lively and clear, the eye and the eye. ears alert, trotting behind their masters as favorite friends, much more than in submissive servants, "he wrote. And this specialist of the rabbit coursing also affirmed that "the Fox Terrier is the most favored quadruped that has ever existed". This statement only referred to Fox's impact on the good society, which makes it a bit premature.
But the Fox quickly exceeded this status of dog chic to become, especially after the 1920s, a very popular animal, enjoying an international aura. The United States, Belgium, Italy and France, indeed, had not long to give it a large place. In France, the Fox was regularly imported in 1892, its introduction being favored by Anglophilia very popular in the good society. In fact, the Fox's fashion was confirmed in the circles of the horse and the hunt which were in permanent relation with the English. It was also the time when the rabbit coursing was practiced: the coaches and the jockeys, in particular at Chantilly, bet on the Fox, the companions of the thoroughbreds and fierce deviators, whom they only had to leave the stables to be able to launch them.
In 1906, the first French Fox specialists created the Fox Terriers Reunion (RAF). Most of these founders used their dogs for hunting underground, so they did not hesitate to import high quality subjects from the English Channel, for example, looking for hard-haired Fox, for example, dogs bearing the affix of Notts.
The French breeding of the Fox started under the motto "beautiful and good at the same time". Indeed, beauty trials were started with "artificial burrows" to select the natural qualities of Terriers. Thus, in the inter-war years, was born the beautiful fame of the French breeders, among whom we must mention MM. André Bazin, Joannès Carret, Louis de Lachomette, Max Ecorcheville and Julien Dormeuil.
After the Second World War, following the same guideline, the French breeding reimported quality dogs, always having in mind the use of the race for the unearthing. In this period, the breeding of Mrs. de Mental (affix of Libron and his crew Rallye of Croc-farm) and that of Mrs. Soudée, long president of the RAF (affix of Malvau, crew Chop the Vilaine Beast), were undoubtedly among the most famous. But this quality dog breeding was then only part of the breeding, because, meanwhile, the breed had met with great popularity that would not stop growing until the sixties.
This Fox vogue, which began after the First World War, was that of the Fox à Poil Dur. The Fox at Poil Lisse, meanwhile, was still a hunting dog appreciated by the diggers - because of its much less restrictive maintenance - as well as an exhibition dog.
Hard Dog was for ten years the most fashionable dog in Britain, and Stanley Dangerfield severely judged the consequences of such an aura: "During this time, not only is it recognized that his temperament slightly deteriorated but still many people, slaves of fashion, discovered that they had a companion whom they did not understand and with whom they hardly agreed. This craze crossed the Channel, but the best subjects did not arrive in France where few owners could take into account the requirements of grooming.
This "sculptured" dog, with a really new silhouette, somewhat "cubist", corresponded to the changing tastes of the society between the two wars, and he also became one of the first dogs of city company, to because of its small size, even if the "real" breeds of company remained luxury and sleeve dogs.
The caricaturist Pol Rab with his hero Ric, a white Fox, facetious commentator of the events of the time with Rac, a black Scottish, well symbolized this popularity. Another cartoonist, Hergé, illustrated the second wave of Fox fashion as a pet dog with his famous Snowy, faithful companion and friend of Tintin since 1929.
The Fox is certainly one of the breeds that changed the most between 1862, when it was first exhibited, and the time when it was at the height of its glory, in the 20s and 30. This evolution does not appear in the standard of the breed, written for the first time in 1876, because the English standards are sufficiently vague and imprecise to allow to modify the silhouette of the dog without it being necessary to transform a line from his official description. The oldest photographs we have show us a dog with fairly square lines, but with a short, shallow neckline and a rather common head, with a wide and deep rib cage, in short, an animal very different from the one we know. today.
The selection has strived to make the Fox a dog built like a small horse, hunter more precisely, who is a hunting horse. The drafting of the standard is quite explicit on this subject, and it can be noted with curiosity that, for the high society, the references to dog breeds were Fox Hounds and Greyhounds. The Fox gradually lost his round skull, his short and pointed muzzle; his neck and head became very long, his back shorter and his chest less "exploded". The English breeders have even exaggerated this silhouette by producing very short dogs with limbs and stiff and straight joints, which give a jumping gait: they are caricatures. The size of the Fox also gave rise to many controversies, as this dog, like many, has tended to grow thanks to the progress of breeding and feeding, to the point of meeting certain difficulties to penetrate and move in a terrier, which is his original work, and it was not always easy to get a dog both "hunter-built" and small enough.
The Fox is nevertheless a superb athlete, where compactness and robustness combine harmoniously with elegance and finesse. This dog is a very good jumper, very fast - he is the fastest of the small dogs -, extremely resistant and armed with a formidable jaw.