Kangal Shepherd Dog

FCI standard Nº 331

Origin
Turkey
Group
Group 2 Pinscher and Schnauzer – Molossoid breeds – Swiss Mountain and Cattle Dogs
Section
Section 2.2 Molossoid breeds, Mountain type
Working
Without working trial
Acceptance on a definitive basis by the FCI
Tuesday 06 June 1989
Publication of the official valid standard
Friday 15 June 2018
Last update
Monday 25 June 2018
En français, cette race se dit
Chien de berger Kangal
Diese Norm ist in deutscher Sprache sichtbar
Kangal Hirtenhund
En español, esta raza se dice
Perro de Pastor Kangal
In het Nederlands, wordt dit ras gezegd
Kangal Herdershond
This breed is also known as
Blackhead Karaba 
Anatolian Blackhead 
Anadolulu Karaba 
Kangal 
Coban Kopegi

Usage

Shepherd Dog used for guarding sheep. Active breed originally used as a guard dog for sheep; hard working; capable of enduring extremes of heat and cold.

Brief historical summary

Although each nation eagerly designates a breed history for their national breeds, rarely is it possible to come up with an accurate one, especially when it comes to livestock protection dogs. The Kangal Dog’s history is also one of them. However, it is a breed deeply imbedded in today’s Turkish culture. It is Turkey’s highly praised National Dog.
It wouldn’t be too unrealistic to say that the Turkish people migrating from Central Asia whose livelihood primarily relied on nomadic animal husbandry brought their strong livestock protection dogs along with them. It is a well-known fact that the dogs protecting sheep and goats in Central Asia are of various colours.
The question regarding the origins of the Kangal Dog we know today should be about what caused them to have a more unifying standard in terms of type and especially colour in Turkey.
It is believed that lies with the area they are highly populated in Eastern Turkey and the kind of sheep breed they are known to protect: Akkaraman Sheep.
They both seem to share the same black mask on a dun coloured coat across the vast steppes of Eastern Turkey surrounded by high mountains, creating relatively an isolated population. This suggests a perfect camouflage and adaptation for both. The breed name, Kangal seems to come from the town of Kangal off Sivas where the breed attracted worldwide attention with exceptionally high quality and uniform specimens.

General appearance

Large, upstanding, powerfully built, livestock guarding dog with dark mask. Not aggressive but good guardian. Capable of great speed. The Kangal is a molossus type dog. Its constitution is robust. Compact body is covered with thick and medium length of hair. Body is of rectangular shape.

Important proportions

Profile lines of the muzzle and the skull are divergent.
Body length is 10-12% longer than height at the withers.
Depth of chest is approximately 50% of height at the withers.

Behaviour / temperament

Steady and bold without aggression, naturally independent, very intelligent and tractable. Proud and confident. Loyal and affectionate to owners, but wary of strangers when on duty.

Head

Cranial region

Head
Large, but in proportion to the body.
Skull
Broad between ears, slightly narrowing toward the stop. Slightly rounded. Length of the skull is greater than width of the skull. 
Stop
Slight.

Facial region

Nose
Black.
Muzzle
Shorter than the skull. Muzzle length is 40-44% of head length. Profile blunt, tapering slightly to the end. Muzzle line from stop towards the nose is gently sloped.
Lips
Very slightly pendulous, black-edged. Edge of upper lip not lower than the profile of the underjaw. Corner of mouth tight.
Jaws and teeth
Teeth strong, scissor bite is prefered, level or reverse scissor bite accepted, lack of P1 and M3 not to be penalized.
Cheeks
Well muscled, cheek bones are visible but not pronounced.
Eyes
Almond shaped medium to large, size in proportion to size of skull, set well apart, showing no haw. Dark brown to light brown, the darker, the better. Eye rims black.
Ears
Medium sized, triangular in shape, rounded at tip, pendant with front edge close to cheek, higher when alert. Cropped ears (where allowed) are evaluated as the non-cropped ones.

Neck

Slightly arched, powerful, muscular, length is almost equal to length of head, rather thick. Can have very slight dewlap. Neck is not carried in upright position.

Body

Body
Powerful, well muscled, never flat in the sides.
Topline
Slightly arched over loins. Croup a bit higher than height at the withers.
Withers
Powerful, slightly prominent.
Back
Medium length, strong, well muscled.
Loin
Slightly arched.
Croup
Of medium length. Muscular, well connected to the loins. Sloping at almost 30 degrees.
Chest
Deep, reaching the point of the elbows, ribs well sprung, ribcage sufficiently long.
Underline and belly
Belly slightly tucked up.

Tail

Long, reaching a bit under the hock, Upper line of the tail forms a continuous line with the croup line when relaxed carried low with close curl at the tip; when alert carried high and curled over the back, specially on males.

Limbs

Forequarters

Generality
Set well apart, straight and well boned; of good length.
Shoulders
Well muscled, oblique.
Upper arm
Must be muscular and strong. Close to the body.
Elbows
Close to the sides but allowing free movement.
Forearm
Harmonic length with body, strong boned, straight.
Carpal
Strong.
Pastern
Strong, slightly sloping when viewed from the side.
Forefeet
Strong, with thick pads and well arched toes. Nails short and preferably black.

Hindquarters

Generality
Powerful, not overloaded with muscles. Hind legs vertical when seen from behind.
Upper thigh
Long.
Lower thigh
Muscular, strong.
Stifle
Well angulated.
Metatarsus
Well developed, moderate length and stands vertical to the ground. Parallel to each other.
Hock
Firm, wide. Moderate angulation.
Hind feet
Strong, with thick pads and well arched toes. Nails short and preferably black. Presence of dewclaws is accepted.

Gait and movement

Very noticeable, line of head, neck and body at the same level when walking, movement even, supple and long reaching, giving impression of stalking, with great power. Pacing acceptable at slow speed.

Skin

Of medium thickness, well adhering to the head and body. Slight dewlap is tolerated. Skin colour depends on hair colour, but skin must be pigmented.

Coat

Hair
3 to 7 cm, thick and harsh guard coat, dense undercoat. Length variations in coat may be possible according to weather conditions. Longer and thicker on neck, shoulders and thighs.
Colour
Whole body should be one colour. Can be from fawn to wolf sable. White or lighter colour on chest is not considered as a fault if is not larger than 10 cm of width. White colour on throat is not preferred. White colour on paws and feet can be seen. Less white is preferred. Must have black mask. Mask covers the muzzle and it is lighter on the skull. Ears are dark. It can be a dark line on half or one third of tail from tip to base. White tip on tail is accepted.

Size and weight

Height at withers
Males: 72 to 78 cm. with + / - 2 cm of tolerance. Females: 65 to 73 cm. with + / -2 cm of tolerance.
Weight
Males: 48 to 60 kg. Females: 40 to 50 kg.

Faults

• Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog and its ability to perform its traditional work.
• Faults listed should be in degree of seriousness.

Serious faults

 Skull wider than its length from occiput to stop.
 Lower croup height than height at the withers.
 Too light or too heavy construction for working condition.
 Untypical tail shape.
 White patch on the neck.
 White line on the muzzle and mask.

Disqualifying faults

 Aggressive or overly shy dogs.
 Untypical specimen.
 Overshot bite.
 Undershot exceeding reverse scissors bite.
 Muzzle too short (one third of the total length of the head).
 Coat very short and smooth, devoid of undercoat.
 No mask on muzzle.
 Brown nose and pigmentation.
 Different coloured eyes.

NB :

• Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
• The above mentioned faults when occurring to a highly marked degree or frequently are disqualifying.
• Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
• Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.

Bibliography

http://www.fci.be/

 

Additional information from visitors

Un article de monsieur Philippe Enguehard http://perso.wanadoo.fr/berger.anatolie

Le standard français, datant de 1993, est la traduction très approximative du standard américain de l'époque.
En réalité, seuls quelques rares kangals vivaient alors en France: la majorité étaient d'origine étrangère non turque. L'adoption des critères de race s'est donc faite en mélangeant la traduction de l'ancien standard américain et la description d'une dizaine de chiens présents appartenant le plus souvent à des personnes qui souhaitaient en faire un commerce futur.

Il s'agit donc d'un standard "sur mesure" qui ne tient aucun compte des recherches des scientifiques turcs et américains.

Le standard français en résumé

La lecture de ce standard réserve quelques surprises :

  1. le sous titre : "çoban köpegi" ne désigne pas une race mais signifie simplement "chien de pâtre ou de berger".
  2. le bref aperçu historique : d'une imprécision farfelue, il est teinté de finalisme et darwinisme et mélange aussi sédentarisation avec nomadisme.
  3. la description du chien : que d'erreurs ou d'inexactitudes membres postérieurs: musculature pas trop épaisse Le standard américain stipule "heavily" soit littéralement lourde musculature la queue: au repos légèrement incurvée. En américain, "wheel carrying preferred" soit "portée de préférence enroulée comme une roue"

Le comble:
le poil: variation importante dans la longueur suivant le climat!! Plus que l'erreur scientifique en elle même, le manque de maîtrise du français ou l'ignorance totale de l'unicité du climat local, cette phrase permet de reconnaître comme Kangal des chiens qui se rapprochent du berger de Kars ou de l'Akbash.

Le standard turc :

Critères de race du berger d’Anatolie Kangal
République turque, Ministère de l’agriculture T.C.

Le Kangal, chien de berger. Particularités et originalités de la race

Structure de la bouche et du nez :
Le nez et la bouche sont assez courts mais épais, le menton est fort.
Les dents sont pointues et très solides.
Les lèvres bien pendantes.
Les oreilles, le contour des yeux, la bouche jusqu’au museau est noir.

Les yeux :
Ses yeux sont petits et ronds par rapport à sa tête, et leur couleur varie entre l’or et le brun. Le contour des yeux est noir. Le regard est direct et noble.

Les oreilles :
Elles sont de forme moyennes en forme de triangle avec des extrémités arrondies. Elles sont collées à la tête et elles pendent (toujours).

La tête et la poitrine :
Si on le regarde de face, il fait penser à un lion. Une grosse tête soutenue par un cou très puissant.
Le cou :légèrement courbe, puissant et musclé. Longueur moyenne. Épais, l’avant de la poitrine est bien plus large que l’arrière de la poitrine. Les épaules sont fortement musclées.
Les pattes avant sont fortes, longues, droites et bien musclées.

Le corps :
Après la tête, il a une forme carrée. Le corps est très fort et musclé, jamais gros. La poitrine est profonde ( descend)jusqu’aux coudes et le ventre légèrement rentré vers l’intérieur.

Les jambes (membres) :
Les jambes sont puissantes. Les jambes avant par rapport aux jambes arrières sont plus fortes et bien bâties. Les doigts sont bombés et noirs.

La queue :
La queue est attachée haut. En position de repos, la queue est basse et bouclée. Quand le chien est en éveil, la queue est relevée et fortement bouclée.

Le manteau :
Le poil est court, bien serré sur la peau.


La couleur :
De couleur cendrée jusqu’à la couleur acier. Au cou, il peut y avoir un médaillon blanc.

Le poids :
Les mâles : entre 50 et 60 kg
Les femelles: entre 41 et 59 kg

Le standard américain

La traduction suivante est adoptée entre autre par L'American Kennel Club après un travail en étroite collaboration avec les scientifiques Turcs.

Aspect général :
grand, bien planté, capable de grande vitesse. Tête large et forte manteau à poil court avec sous-poil abondant

Caractère :
Actif et résistant. Race naturellement indépendante, très intelligente et docile, fidèles et tendres avec leurs propriétaires mais méfiants avec les étrangers à l'âge adulte

Critères morphologiques:
Tête et crâne :
Le crâne est large entre les 2 oreilles et en légère forme de dôme chez l'adulte
Le museau est rectangulaire et légèrement plus court que le crâne

Défaut sérieux : museau s'amenuisant nettement

Dentition :
Forte avec parfaite morsure en ciseau
Yeux :
En rapport avec la taille du crâne.

Défaut grave : yeux bleus, yeux de couleurs différentes.

Oreilles :
Implantées bas, toujours tombantes
Cou :
Musclé, puissant et très épais (il doit fournir une protection contre une attaque)

Défaut grave : un cou "sec" au "cuir collé"

Corps :
Bien musclé et jamais gras, un coffre (poitrine) profond descendant au coude. Une croupe légèrement plus élevée que le garrot (le dos marquant au minimum un arc concave)
Queue :
Attachée haut, doit être portée haut en forme de roue lorsque le chien est en éveil, portée bas au repos avec au minimum un arc terminal marqué
Robe :
Le manteau est court et dense, le sous-poil est abondant surtout en hiver. La couleur est sable ou charbonnée ( bringée?).

Défaut grave : poil long ou mi-long couleur blanc pur ou fauve prononcé

Poids :
mâle: 50/60kg
femelle: 41/59kg

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