Dobermann

FCI standard Nº 143

Origin
Germany
Translation
Dobermann Council of K.U.S.A. (Kennel Union of Southern Africa)
Group
Group 2 Pinscher and Schnauzer type-Molossian type and Swiss Mountain and Cattle Dogs
Section
Section 1 Pinscher and Schnauzer type
Working
With working trial
Acceptance on a definitive basis by the FCI
Saturday 01 January 1955
Publication of the official valid standard
Friday 13 November 2015
Last update
Thursday 17 December 2015
En français, cette race se dit
Dobermann
Diese Norm ist in deutscher Sprache sichtbar
Dobermann
En español, esta raza se dice
Dobermann
In het Nederlands, wordt dit ras gezegd
Dobermann

Usage

Companion, protection and working dog.

Brief historical summary

The Dobermann is the only German breed which bears the name of its original breeder, Friedrich Louis Dobermann (02.01.1834 – 09.06.1894).
He was believed to be a tax collector, offal abbatoir manager (knacker) and a part time dog catcher, legally able to catch all stray dogs. He bred with animals from this reservoir that were particularly sharp. The so called “butcher’s dogs” which were already considered a relatively pure breed at that time, played a most important role in the origination of the Dobermann breed. These dogs were an early type of Rottweiler, mixed with a type of shepherd which existed in “Thüringen” as a black dog with rust red markings. Herr Dobermann bred with this mixture of dogs in the Eighteen Seventies. Thus he obtained “his breed” : not only alert, but highly protective working and housedogs. They were often used as guard and police dogs. Their extensive use in police work led to the nickname “Gendarme dog”. They were used in hunting to control large vermin.
In these circumstances it was a matter of course that the Dobermann was recognized officially as a Police Dog by the beginning of the century. The Dobermann breed requires a medium sized, powerful, muscular dog. Despite his substance he shall be elegant and noble, which will be evident in his body line. He must be exceptionally suitable as a companion, protection and working dog and also as a family dog.

General appearance

The Dobermann is of medium size, strong and muscularly built. Through the elegant lines of its body, its proud stature, and its expression of determination, it conforms to the ideal picture of dog.

Important proportions

The body of the Dobermann appears to be almost square, particularly in males. The length of the body measured from the point of the shoulder to the point of the buttock shall not be more than 5% longer than the height from the withers to the ground in males, and 10% in females.

Behaviour / temperament

The disposition of the Dobermann is friendly and calm; very devoted to the family it loves children. Medium temperament and medium sharpness (alertness) is desired. A medium threshold of irritation is required with a good contact to the owner. Easy to train, The Dobermann enjoys working, and shall have good working ability, courage and hardness. The particular values of self confidence and intrepidness are requied, and also adaptability and attention to fit the social environment.

Head

Cranial region

Skull
Strong and in proportion to the body. Seen from the top the head is shaped in the form of a blunt wedge. Viewed form the front the crown line shall be almost level and not dropping off to the ears. The muzzle line extends almost straight to the top line of the skull which falls, gently rounded, into the neck line. The superciliary ridge is well developed without protruding.
The forehead furrow is still visible. The occiput shall not be conspicuous. Seen from the front and the top the sides of the head must not bulge. The slight bulge between the rear of the upper jawbone and the cheek bone shall be in harmony with the total length of the head. The head muscles shall be well developed.  
Stop
Shall be slight but visibly developed.

Facial region

Nose
Nostrils well developed, more broad than round, with large openings without overall protrusion. Black – on black dogs; on brown dogs, corresponding lighter shades.
Muzzle
The muzzle must be in the right proportion with the upper head and must be strongly developed. The muzzle shall have depth. The mouth opening shall be wide, reaching to the molars. A good muzzle width must also be present on the upper and lower incisor area.
Lips
They shall be tight and lie close to the jaw which will ensure a tight closure of the mouth. The pigment of the gum to be dark; on brown dogs a corresponding lighter shade.
Jaws and teeth
Powerful broad upper and under jaw, scissor bite, 42 teeth correctly placed and normal size.
Eyes
Middle sized, oval and dark in colour. Lighter shades are permitted for brown dogs. Close lying eyelids. Eyelids shall be covered with hair. Baldness around the rim of the eye is highly undesirable.
Ears
The ear, which is set high, is carried erect and cropped to a length in proportion to the head. In a country where cropping is not permitted the uncropped ear is equally recognized. (Medium size preferred and with the front edge lying close to the cheeks).

Neck

The neck must have a good length and be in proportion to the body and the head. It is dry and muscular. Its outline rises gradually and is softly curved. Its carriage is upright and shows much nobility.

Body

Withers
Shall be pronounced in height and length, especially in males and thereby determine the slope of the topline rising from the croup to the withers.
Back
Short and tight, of good width and well muscled.
Loin
Of good width and well muscled. The bitch can be slightly longer in loin because she requires space for suckling.
Croup
It shall fall slightly, hardly perceptible from sacrum to the root of the tail, and appears well rounded, being neither straight nor noticeably sloping, of good width and well muscled.
Chest
Length and depth of chest must be in the right proportion to the body length. The depth with slightly arched ribs should be approximately 50% the height of the dog at the withers. The chest has got a good width with especially well developed forechest.
Underline and belly
From the bottom of the breastbone to the pelvis the underline is noticeably tucked up.

Tail

It is high set and docked short whereby approximately two tail vertebrae remain visible. In countries where docking is legally not permitted the tail may remain natural.

Limbs

Forequarters

Generality
The front legs as seen from all sides are almost straight, vertical to the ground and strongly developed.
Shoulders
The shoulder-blade lies close against the chest, and both sides of the shoulder-blade edge are well muscled and reach over the top of the thoracic vertebra, slanting as much as possible and well set back. The angle to the horizontal is approximately 50%.
Upper arm
Good length, well muscled, the angle to the shoulder- blade is approximately 105° to 110°.
Elbows
Close in, not turned out.
Forearm
Strong and straight. Well muscled. Length in harmony with the whole body.
Carpal
Strong.
Pastern
Bones strong. Straight seen from the front. Seen from the side, only slightly sloping, maximum 10°.
Forefeet
The feet are short and tight. The toes are arched towards the top (cat like). Nails short and black.

Hindquarters

Generality
Seen from the back the Dobermann looks, because of his well developed pelvic muscles in hips and croup, wide and rounded off. The muscles running from the pelvic towards the upper and lower thigh result in good width development, as well as in the upper thigh area, in the knee joint area and at the lower thigh. The strong hind legs are straight and stand parallel.
Upper thigh
Good length and width, well muscled. Good angulation to the hip joint. Angulation to the horizontal approximately between 80° to 85°.
Lower thigh
Medium length and in harmony with the total length of the hindquarter.
Stifle
The knee joint is strong and is formed by the upper and lower thigh as well as the knee cap. The knee angulation is approximately 130°.
Metatarsus
It is short and stands vertical to the ground.
Hock
Medium strength and parallel. The lower thigh bone is joined to the metatarsal at the hock joint (angle about 140°).
Hind feet
Like the front feet, the toes of the back feet are short, arched and closed. Nails are short and black.

Gait and movement

The gait is of special importance to both the working ability as well as the exterior appearance. The gait is elastic, elegant, agile, free and ground covering. The front legs reach out as far as possible. The hind quarter gives far reaching and necessary elastic drive. The front leg of one side and back leg of the other side move forward at the same time. There should be good stability of the back, the ligaments and the joints.

Skin

The skin fits closely all over and is of good pigment.

Coat

Hair
The hair is short, hard and thick. It lies tight and smooth and is equally distributed over the whole surface. Undercoat is not allowed.
Colour
The colour is black or brown, with rust red clearly defined and clean markings. Markings on the muzzle, as a spot on the cheeks and the top of the eyebrow, on the throat, two spots on the forechest, on the metacarpus, metatarsus and feet, on the inside of the back thigh, on the arms and below the tail.

Size and weight

Height at withers
Males : 68 – 72 cm. Bitches : 63 – 68 cm. Medium size desirable.
Weight
Males : about 40 – 45 kg. Bitches : about 32 – 35 kg.

Faults

• Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog and its ability to perform its traditional work.
• Faults listed should be in degree of seriousness.

General faults

 General Appearance : Reversal of sexual impression; little substance; too light; too heavy; too leggy; weak bones.
 Head : Too heavy, too narrow, too short, too long, too much or too little stop; Roman nose, bad slope of the top line of the skull; weak underjaw; round or slit eyes; light eye; cheeks too heavy; loose flews; eyes too open or too deepset; ear set too high or too low; open mouth angle.
 Neck : Slightly short; too short; loose skin around the throat; dewlap; too long (not in harmony); ewe neck.
 Body : Black not tight; sloping croup; sway back; roach back; insufficient or too much spring of rib; insufficient depth or width of chest; back too long overall; too little forechest; tail set too high or too low; too little or too much tuck up.
 Limbs : Too little or too much angulation front or hindquarters; loose elbow; deviations from the standard position and length of bones and joints; feet too close together or too wide apart; cow-hocks, spread hocks, close hocks; open or soft paws, crooked toes; pale nails.
 Coat : Markings too light or not sharply defined; smudged markings; mask too dark; big black spot on the legs; chest markings hardly visible or too large; hair long, soft, curly or dull.
 Thin coat; bald patches; large tufts of hair particularly on the body; visible undercoat.
 Character : Inadequate self confidence; temperament too high; sharpness too high; too high or too low a threshold of irritation.
 Size : Deviation of size up to two centimetres from the standard should result in a lowering of the quality grading.
 Gait : Wobbly; restricted or stiff gait; pacing.

Abnormalities

 Aggressive or overly shy dogs.
 General : Pronounced reversal of sexual impressions.
 Eyes : Yellow eyes (bird of prey eye); wall eye.
 Dentition : Overshot; level bite; undershot; missing teeth.
 Coat : White spots; pronounced long and wavy hair; pronounced thin coat or large bald patches.
 Size : Dogs which deviate more than two centimetres over or under the standard.

NB :

• Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
• The above mentioned faults when occurring to a highly marked degree or frequently are disqualifying.
• Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
• Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.

Bibliography

http://www.fci.be/

 

Detailed history

The Dobermann is a breed that has a century of existence: the first specimens appeared around 1885; about ten years before those of two other famous breeds, the German Shepherd and the Boxer. There is also an important difference between them: the German Shepherd and the Boxer can in fact boast of being the modern result of an ancestral type, lupoid shepherd dog in one case, fighting dog in the while the Dobermann represents a truly new type (one would be hard-pressed to find, in writings or old paintings, a similar dog).

The very name of the breed reflects its originality in the canine world, since it bears the name of its creator, a certain Friedrich Ludwig Dobermann (1834 - 1894). This man is often presented as either a pound-keeper or a bailiff of the town of Apolda in Thuringia. In fact, this communal employee had multiple functions: he controlled slaughterhouses, handled rendering, picked up stray dogs, and also collected fines, rent, and various royalties. In short, the burgomaster of Apolda charged him with all sorts of ungrateful tasks and difficult steps.

Because of his role, it is likely that the character was not to find many friends in the late-paying citizens or ordered to pay a fine. Moreover, when he was riding on horseback, alone, in this hilly and wooded corner of Thuringia, carrying sometimes large sums of money, he might be afraid of attempting some mischief. It is natural, therefore, that he thought of bringing with him dogs with a temperament, capable of helping him in case of difficulty. Such dogs, he must have noticed among those he had to drive in the pound or those he had to rub on the farms, when he was greeted without amenity. The selection was rudimentary, certainly, but effective. And since, by his functions, he had access to the slaughterhouses, the problem of food, to maintain a large pack of heavy dogs, did not arise.

We do not know exactly which dogs he used to create the breed that was to bear his name, because he left no written record of his selection work. In the beginning, moreover, he probably did not plan to "make" exactly one breed, and he contented himself with uniting dogs whose character corresponded to what he was looking for. But the reputation that his dogs quickly acquired in the region decided otherwise, because many were dog enthusiasts interested in the type he had very empirically obtained.

Given the lack of documents on Friedrich Ludwig Dobermann's experiments, specialists are reduced to speculating to try to reconstruct their journey, by finding the racial roots of the dog we know today.

Thus, French cynologists, considering its characteristic black and fire dress, thought of our national Beauceron. It may be objected that the morphological types of the two races are quite far apart; but did the French breeders of the 1920s not select a distinctly "dobermannised" Low-Red, that is to say, refined and short-haired, almost flabby? And to explain the presence of the French dog in Thuringia, it has been suggested that the Napoleonic armies could have left specimens in their campaigns.

It must be admitted that this hypothesis, if it satisfies a certain cocardier spirit, appears above all as a manifestation of the Germanophobia of a certain period, which led for example to deny, despite the evidence, a German ancestry to the German Shepherd, qualified "Alsatian". Let us add that France did not have the exclusivity of ancient and solid mastiffs with black and fire dress. On the other hand, they were also widespread and gave birth, for example, to Rottweiler or Hovawart. They are also the ancestors of the first German Shepherds. It is reasonable to conclude that they are partly responsible for the Doberman's characteristic color and size.

But the Dobermann is reminiscent of another canine type: the Pinscher. In mid-nineteenth century Germany, this dog was one of the most widespread dogs: while the horse was still ubiquitous, both as a horse and as a hitch, the presence of a rodent destroyer was essential in all the stables and farms The Pinscher, the name comes from the English to pinch, tighten, pinch, can be considered as the German version of French dog breeds and Terriers (not bassets) that possessed the English. very old, its morphological type could be compared to that of the Neolithic Canis palustris, well known thanks to archeology, it could have a short or scribbled hair, tawny, black or gray wolf. that is to say the Schnauzer, has quickly met a great success.The Pinscher with short hair, it almost did not perpetuate itself through the Dobermann.In fact, the latter, which originally had significantly the name of Pinscher, was characterized before the middle Pinscher. It is therefore legitimate to consider the Dobermann as a sort of giant Pinscher; he possessed the qualities of pugnacity and vivacity; and up to the way of biting; German ratier, with the advantage of a larger size, allowing him to become a watchdog and defense. The idea of creating a giant Terrier was in the air of the time: it resulted, in Britain, in the development of the Airedale, while the people of Munich created the first Giant Schnauzers.

The oldest documents showing the first Dobermanns tend to confirm the Pinscher's part in their ancestry, FL Dobermann having probably recognized in this canine type the courage and the mordant he sought. This was also the opinion of the German magazine Unsere Hunde (quoted by J. Mézières and A. Whilhelm, authors of reference books on race), which, in its December 1898 issue, wrote the following : "About 1870, Dietsch, owner at the time of sandpits in Apolda, owned a blue-gray bitch, a kind of Pinscher that he made out by a black butcher's dog. This stallion already possessed the characteristic fire stains and came from a cross between a sheepdog and a butcher's dog. The Dobermann rendering machine, which, unfortunately, died too early, crossed the descendants of these two dogs, who had become good guard dogs with German Pinschers. Here is the origin of the current Dobermann. As it is established that this man first selected these dogs, we have no objection to them perpetuating his name. "

This Pinscher ancestry is recognized, but half a dozen other breeds are cited for service; or serve; to the development of this eminently tonic mixture that has Doberman name. Thus, to see a Dobermann wearing drooping ears (their natural port when they are not cut), we can assume the contribution of Braques Germans, even Braques Weimar, the role of these dogs, it is true, not only to quest, stop, bring back the game, but also including the destruction of harmful animals and the guard of the game. But since the Dobermann is often cited as responsible for this biting character, we must ask ourselves who brought the most to the other.

To explain the elegance of Dobermann lines, some have thought of the Greyhound. In particular, we often mention the use of a Greyhound lice, with a black coat and a very aggressive temperament. The Great Dane also regularly returns as probable ascendant, for its size and the blue color that it would have transmitted. Such filiation is admissible, if we consider that this dog was, at the end of the nineteenth century, less gigantic than today, since the male was between 75 and 80 centimeters at most. Finally, in the Dobermann's veins, Terrier Black and Tan (Black and Fire) blood would have been refined, which would have refined the morphology and given more sustained fires.

In fact, the future of the race would have been different if Mr. Dobermann had not had friends and successors to continue his work. In particular, Otto Goller's intervention was instrumental in moving from the primitive, compact, very medium-sized Doberman Dobermann (50 to 60 cm) and the rather short and thick head to the superb athlete without contests one of the most beautiful canine types.

Another founding father, Goswin Tischler, watched over the destiny of the Dobermann by founding a famous kennel named "von Greenland" after a street in Apolda. To the first subjects approved by FL Dobermann; Lux, Landgraf, Rambo, Schnupp (this one bearing the number 1 in the breeding book of the breed); Tischler's subjects were added: his dogs Bosco and Caesi, for example, produced the first champion of the breed, Prinz Matzi von Groenland, born on August 15, 1895.

Otto Goller, who had the affix "von Thüringen", obtained his subjects from 1901. Among the stallions he produced and who are considered patriarchs of the breed, there is Hellegraf von Thüringen, born on June 12, 1904. Previously, he had acquired from Tischler a subject which revealed in his hands a remarkable racer, Graf Belling. In 1910, with the birth of two other great racers, Bodo and Bob von Egenfeld, whose heads already had almost the carving and elegance of the current dogs, ends the period of elaboration of the race. It is undoubtedly after this date that various infusions of other races were tried, with, it must be said, more or less happiness: the Manchester Terrier, for example, could bring finesse and more sustained colors. and regular, but also a template too light.

As for the English Greyhound, it seems to have given higher sizes, but also a flat rib cage and a body too long. These crossings had thus brought undesirable characteristics, which the farmers had to strive to root out during the inter-war period. With the choice between two options: to preserve the race's native qualities, already legendary, tenacity and courage or evolve to a more flexible type of character, with a finer morphology. This is, in the main, the first solution that has been adopted.

The Dobermann quickly conquered many amateurs, German and European. This phenomenon, rarely emphasized, shows what was the potential qualities of the breed, in its infancy. The first club was founded by Otto Goller at Apolda in 1899. Quickly, a dozen other associations were born, especially in the south of Germany, to federate in 1912 as part of a large club covering all Germany. Given its seductive power, the Dobermann was presented very early in exhibitions. In Cologne, in 1910, there was a record 105 commitments.

Outside of Germany, it was the Swiss who had the quickest reflexes: as early as 1902, when they founded a club at Arau, they showed how much they liked this dog with a clean, easy-to-care silhouette. The Dutch followed suit in 1909, and they were the first to notice its adaptation to tropical climates, when they took it to their distant colonies, especially in the Philippines. At the same time, the Alsatians discovered it in turn, and a first local club was formed in 1913. A national club, intended in principle to cover all the Hexagon, was created in 1920 in Strasbourg, but it was necessary to wait until almost sixties for the Doberman to really spread in most French regions.

The Americans experienced at their expense the qualities of this dog of war, used by the German army during the first world conflict; reacting in a very pragmatic way, they did not hesitate, after the war, to acquire good breeders, to acclimate at home a race which had proved itself. Thus was born, in 1922, an American club. Austria and Italy have also adopted the Dobermann, and then, in turn, countries with hot climates such as Uruguay and Brazil have quickly made them their favorite watchdog. In the end, it was Britain, for once, that used the wagon. Because, no doubt, of the obligatory quarantine of six months in this country and especially of the prohibition to prune the ears (which modifies considerably the silhouette of the dog), the race did not really take root there until 1947 So, quickly appreciated - in most cases; as soon as it was discovered, the Dobermann became one of the most effective guard dogs, so the most widespread in the world.

Designed to be a service dog, the Dobermann was essentially confined in the first quarter of the twentieth century, in this function, whether serving individuals or the administrations. Because it represented the "must" in terms of courage, tenacity, speed of intervention, its users have tended, to exalt its qualities, to add, making it a reputation as a dog inconvenient, very hard, difficult to control. In the twenties, a renowned Swiss breeder, Gottfried Liechti, expressed this mentality very well: "They were certainly robust and were not afraid of anything; not even the devil himself; and it took a good deal of courage to own one. "

The same is true of Philipp Gruenig, historian of the breed, who reports about Alarich von Thüringen, born in 1897: "He was known for his incredible intelligence and was feared all the same. Of course, the intelligence combined with a certain roughness characterizes these dogs, but it is not essential, for all that, to qualify their daring as absolute and their intelligence as incredible, as if they were trying to scare themselves describing an animal almost diabolical (the color of the dress helping). It is also necessary to place these somewhat exaggerated remarks in their context: the competition was great at the time between Germanic races selected at about the same time, for similar jobs, but from "families" radically different canines; German Shepherd, Boxer, Rottweiler, Dobermann all sought the title of best guard dog.

Today, this image only partially corresponds to the reality: if the Dobermann, dog of round and intervention in the "civil", also remains an excellent animal of work, suitable for the contests of dogs of defense, of such utilitarian dogs are only a small part of the population of Dobermanns, who, for their greatest happiness and the pleasure of their master, spend most of their time comfortably seated in an armchair or cushion, being driven by car, who takes the air in the garden, who shoulders the last to walk straight.

Of course, it should not be deduced that the Doberman is suitable for all teachers and any situation. This dog, who is not overly nervous, is never mean; or simply aggressive; without reason. It is a balanced animal but of character. The master of a Dobermann is not, can not and must not be the same as that of a Poodle. To give the full measure of its many qualities, this dog requires in return that his master has some. It is therefore prudent for anyone who is not familiar with the breed or who has not yet handled a manly dog, to choose a female, if he wants to start in the "Dobermannia". More supple in temperament, more demonstrative in her affection, and sweeter, she nevertheless possesses vigilance equal to that of the male. On the other hand, for those who have a firm hand (but not brutal) and the "feeling" with the dogs, in the absence of a vast experience in dressage, the whole character of a male Dobermann can only be source of joys and pride. One condition, however: to this gloved velvet firmness, the master of a Dobermann will have to add calmness and patience. So let's not bluntly advise this dog to the vellitarians, the debonair, to those who are reluctant to show authority.

A good teacher must therefore be well informed of the deep nature of the Dobermann. First of all, it's a domineering dog; if the neophyte does not detect this characteristic in his three-month-old puppy, she will jump at him when the puppy becomes an ungainly eight-month-old. In fact, the dog is simply trying to become pack leader, to see if "it works". And sometimes, indeed, he reaches his goal: it will have been enough to scold him, to show his teeth, to impose his will. It is imperative, however, not to be intimidated by these intimidating maneuvers. The master must behave as such, with a fair but solid grip.

This mixture of justice and authority is all the more necessary because pride and independence are two other fundamental components of Doberman's behavior. While being very attached to its masters, it is a dog which often tends to do as its head, since the educative pressure of the master is revealed to be insufficient. It is therefore necessary to practice a rigorous learning in the leash, then without leash, and finally for the recall. Many owners of Dobermanns walk their dogs more than they take out.

As for the pride of the Dobermann, which is one of its most fascinating features, it expresses itself through aesthetics: its majestic head-wear, its confident gait are not only apparent and perfectly reflect its type of character, for the least reserved; in fact, not being those who tend to party to strangers, this dog is insensitive to marks of cordiality; possibly a little forced guests.

It is understood that this distant attitude supposes the presence of the master. If not, the dog will be much more active; intractable, even fierce; in the surveillance of the house or the car. His instinct of protection of the territory being innate and hyper-developed, his vigilance is never faulted. In this area, there is no need for specific training: the dog reacts spontaneously. It naturally extends its protection to all those who live in the family territory, especially children, who will have to learn to respect this partner. With other dogs, the Dobermann does not necessarily look for a fight, but it will not be allowed to dominate. Also caution requires avoiding opportunities for confrontation.

The Dobermann, born and selected exclusively for the protection of property and people, is a very observant animal, endowed with a great memory, adaptable, understanding everything quickly, sensing, even guessing what his master does not tell him. He therefore has great training skills, although his psychology differs significantly from that of sheepdogs, which are most often used as a reference for trainers; he is hierarchizing much less easily than a Shepherd, he always keeps a dominating background, as well as a certain tendency to independence, which must be kept in check. To effectively channel his energy, the training will have to spare his susceptibility, take into account his native pride and especially motivate him. Because the Doberrnann is an enthusiast, who only works well out of love for his master. His attachment for this one is very deep, almost exclusive; hence, sometimes, a certain tendency to jealousy; and always goes with extreme mistrust towards strangers.

Unlike the reputation that is often made to him, the Dobermann is not a difficult dog but a demanding dog, which one must take care seriously. It may therefore be regretted that he is not more frequently presented in the work competitions (the trainers who try to make him work are, in fact, few). In his home country, but also in the United States and many other countries, Dobermann's favorite sport is the "Schutzhund" (compulsory in Germany for breeding). The Germans, who have exported their defensive dogs, have at the same time managed to impose their work program almost everywhere in the world. This is composed of tests of obedience, relaxation, biting and defense of the master; it relies less on athletic performance or the finesse of dressage than on a perfect performance.

Tracking is also a contest where the Dobermann can be illustrated; several subjects have in recent years reached the highest levels. He finds the opportunity to demonstrate his sense of initiative and to take advantage, at best, of his natural passion and flair; training in this discipline (accessible to the neophyte) has a great psychological interest because it reinforces the connivance with the master. It's probably in the ring that the Dobermann is the least comfortable. His athletic abilities are obviously not in question, but his bite is not adapted to the requirements of this discipline: the dog must indeed make a solid hold, bottom mouth, for fifteen seconds, while the Dobermann tends, him, to bite in successive shots, with the anterior teeth.

Work competitions are, of course, only a small number of dogs, most Dobermanns do not have such an opportunity for release. But their balance requires, imperiously, intense physical activities; they must therefore be offered long walks and frequent (but short) exercises. It would be same. frankly aberrant to leave such dogs at home, in a kennel, or to make warehouse keepers. Because the Dobermann needs human contacts: if possible varied and early, these contacts are essential to "civilize" the young dog and will not diminish his vigilance. On the other hand, if he is sentenced to solitary confinement, the animal may then become difficult to control.

In terms of health, the Dobermann is a robust dog, elegant, full of "substance". It does not present particular weak points; at most, one can detect in some subjects a sensitivity to skin diseases and external parasites (especially in the rare and very beautiful subjects blue and fire). It must be pointed out, however, the relative frequency of cardiac accidents; a problem common to many sport breeds, both full of passion and power. When counting dogs who have suffered a heart attack, the average longevity of Dobermann, a dozen years (subjects reaching fourteen years are rare), can go down to ten years. A rigorous lifestyle throughout one's life, more attention and monitoring when it reaches six or eight years are recommended.

The Dobermann was born and still lives today. under the sign of passion. His temperament can not be satisfied with compromises or half measures and it arouses in humans extreme reactions: on one side a victim of prejudice, on the other, it is defended with energy by its amateurs. You will probably be among them, if you are as demanding of yourself as your dog.

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    Arubian Cunucu He is not recognized by the F.C.I. Origin Caribbean island of Aruba Translation Francis Vandersteen A brief presentation of the Arubian Cunucu The Arubian Cunucu is an outcast dog that lives on the Caribbean island of Aruba. Although they are not officially recognized as a breed by any breed association or club, they are well known to...
  • Antebellum Bulldog

    Antebellum Bulldog He is not recognized by the F.C.I. Origin U.S.A. Translation Francis Vandersteen This breed is also known as Altamaha Plantation DogAltamaha Plantation Bulldog A brief presentation of the Antebellum Bulldog The Antebellum Bulldog is a newcomer to the breed stakes. They were developed recently as a recreation of Bulldogs that were...
  • Anatolian Pyrenees -- Kangal Shepherd Dog X Pyrenean Mountain Dog

    Anatolian Pyrenees He is not recognized by the F.C.I. Origin Turkey <> France -> U.S.A. Translation Francis Vandersteen A brief presentation of the Anatolian Pyrenees Anatolian Pyrenees are a cross between the Kangal Sheepdog and the Pyrenean Mountain Dog. Both breeds were primarily used as livestock guardians, so the Anatolian Pyrenees can also...
  • Amstiff -- American Staffordshire Terrier X Mastiff

    Amstiff He is not recognized by the F.C.I. Origin U.S.A. <> Great Britain -> U.S.A. Translation Francis Vandersteen This breed is also known as BandoggeStaffordshire Mastiff A brief presentation of the Amstiff The Amstiff is a cross between the American Staffordshire Terrier and the Mastiff. The nickname Bandogge refers to a cross between the...
  • American Rat Pinscher -- Rat Terrier X Miniature Pinscher

    American Rat Pinscher He is not recognized by the F.C.I. Origin U.S.A. <> Germany -> U.S.A. Translation Francis Vandersteen This breed is also known as Rat-a-PinRat Pinscher A brief presentation of the American Rat Pinscher The American Rat Pinscher is a combination of the American Rat Terrier and the Miniature Pinscher. The American Rat Terrier was...
  • American Pugabull -- American Bulldog X Pug

    American Pugabull He is not recognized by the F.C.I. Origin U.S.A. <> China -> U.S.A. Translation Francis Vandersteen A brief presentation of the American Pugabull The Pug originated in China. It was often part of the royal households of Europe and, in Victorian times, the Pug featured in paintings, postcards and figurines. The American Bulldog...
  • American Pit Corso -- American Pit Bull Terrier X Italian Corso dog

    American Pit Corso He is not recognized by the F.C.I. Origin U.S.A. <> Italy -> U.S.A. Translation Francis Vandersteen This breed is also known as Corso Pit Bull A brief presentation of the American Pit Corso The American Pit Corso is a cross between the American Pit Bull Terrier and the Italian Cane Corso. They are large dogs weighing around 23...
  • American Neo Bull -- American Bulldog X Neapolitan Mastiff

    American Neo Bull He is not recognized by the F.C.I. Origin U.S.A. <> Italy -> U.S.A. Translation Francis Vandersteen This breed is also known as American Bullpolitan Mastiff A brief presentation of the American Neo Bull The American Neo Bull is a large hybrid dog created in the United States. Breeders in the 1980s crossed different types of...
  • American Masti-Bull -- American Bulldog X Mastiff

    American Masti-Bull He is not recognized by the F.C.I. Origin U.S.A. <> Great Britain -> U.S.A. Translation Francis Vandersteen A brief presentation of the American Masti-Bull The American Masti-Bull is a hybrid breed created in the USA in the 1960s. The breed was developed by crossing the American Bulldog with the Mastiff to create a large,...
  • American Gointer -- Golden Retriever X English Pointer

    American Gointer He is not recognized by the F.C.I. Origin Great Britain -> U.S.A. Translation Francis Vandersteen A brief presentation of the American Gointer The American Gointer is a hybrid breed developed by crossing the Golden Retriever and the English Pointer. Although the breed's origins are not well known, Golden Retrievers are well...
  • American French Bull Terrier -- American Pit Bull Terrier X French Bulldog

    American French Bull Terrier He is not recognized by the F.C.I. Origin U.S.A. <> France -> U.S.A. Translation Francis Vandersteen This breed is also known as French Bull Terrrier A brief presentation of the American French Bull Terrier The American French Bull Terrier is a specific crossbreed or hybrid dog, with one set of parents being the...
  • American French Bulldog -- American Bulldog X French Bulldog

    American French Bulldog He is not recognized by the F.C.I. Origin U.S.A. <> France -> U.S.A. Translation Francis Vandersteen This breed is also known as American French Bullies A brief presentation of the American French Bulldog As a hybrid dog, the American French Bulldog is a healthy breed that makes the most of the traits inherited from the...
  • American Foxy Dane -- American Foxhound X Great Dane

    American Foxy Dane He is not recognized by the F.C.I. Origin U.S.A. <> Germany -> U.S.A. Translation Francis Vandersteen This breed is also known as Fohund Dane A brief presentation of the American Foxy Dane The American Foxy Dane is a new hybrid breed of dog developed through careful selective breeding of the Great Dane and the American...
  • American Foxeagle -- American Foxhound X Beagle

    American Foxeagle He is not recognized by the F.C.I. Origin U.S.A. <> Great Britain -> U.S.A. Translation Francis Vandersteen This breed is also known as WalkeagleAmerican Foxeagle hund A brief presentation of the American Foxeagle The American Foxeagle is new to the hybrid dog arena and still being perfected, but with both parent breeds being...
  • American Eagle Dog -- American Eskimo Dog X Beagle

    American Eagle Dog He is not recognized by the F.C.I. Origin U.S.A. <> Great Britain -> U.S.A. Translation Francis Vandersteen This breed is also known as Eskimo BeagleEskeaglehund A brief presentation of the American Eagle Dog The American Eagle Dog is a hybrid of the Beagle and the American Eskimo Dog. Although little is known about its...
  • American Chow Bulldog -- American Bulldog X Chow Chow

    American Chow Bulldog He is not recognized by the F.C.I. Origin U.S.A. <> China -> U.S.A. Translation Francis Vandersteen This breed is also known as American Chow A brief presentation of the American Chow Bulldog Dignified and aloof, the American Chow Bulldog is a fiercely independent and protective breed. The American Chow Bulldog is descended from two...
  • American Bully Staffy Bull Terrier -- American Bulldog X Staffordshire Bull Terrier

    American Bully Staffy Bull Terrier He is not recognized by the F.C.I. Origin U.S.A. <> Great Britain -> U.S.A. Translation Francis Vandersteen This breed is also known as American Bull StaffyAmerican Bullstaff Terrier A brief presentation of the American Bully Staffy Bull Terrier Loyal and playful, the American Bully Staffy Bull Terrier is a...
  • American Bullweiler -- American Bulldog X Rottweiler

    American Bullweiler He is not recognized by the F.C.I. Origin U.S.A. <> Germany -> U.S.A. Translation Francis Vandersteen This breed is also known as Rottbull A brief presentation of the American Bullweiler Intelligent and observant, the American Bullweiler is a hybrid of the American Bulldog and the Rottweiler. Since this breed is a hybrid, dogs...
  • American Bull Staffy -- American Bulldog X American Staffordshire Terrier

    American Bull Staffy He is not recognized by the F.C.I. Origin U.S.A. -> U.S.A. Translation Francis Vandersteen A brief presentation of the American Bull Staffy Not much is known about the American Bull Staffy yet, apart from the crossbreeds of this hybrid, the American Bulldog and the American Staffordshire Terrier. The American Bulldog is larger...
  • American Bull-Jack -- American Bulldog X Jack Russell Terrier

    American Bull-Jack He is not recognized by the F.C.I. Origin U.S.A. <> Australia -> U.S.A. Translation Francis Vandersteen A brief presentation of the American Bull-Jack Not much is known about the American Bull-Jack yet, and many people will confuse this hybrid's kinship with the English Bulldog and Jack Russell Terrier. The American Bull-Jack is...
  • American Bullhuahua -- American Bulldog X Chihuahua

    American Bullhuahua He is not recognized by the F.C.I. Origin U.S.A. <> Mexico -> U.S.A. Translation Francis Vandersteen This breed is also known as American Bullchi A brief presentation of the American Bullhuahua The American Bullhuahua is a recent hybrid, considered a designer dog, and is sometimes a curiosity given the distinctive...