Luvin

He is not recognized by the F.C.I.

Origin
Italy; precisely on the Apennines in the province of Reggio Emilia
Translation
Francis Vandersteen
Group
Group 1 Sheepdogs and Cattle Dogs (except Swiss Cattle Dogs)
Section
Section 1 Sheepdogs
Working
With work test

Usage

Shepherd and guard dog. Even today, as in the past in the original area, now in part of the Tuscan-Emilian Apennines National Park, it is used to manage flocks of sheep and also goats, as well as guarding sheep and cattle on farms. rural mountain environment.

Brief historical summary

A breed indigenous to the mountainous areas of the Reggiano Apennines, whose oral histories traditionally handed down over the centuries by shepherds go back a thousand years (shepherds say that "lupines have always existed"). The earliest documented evidence so far found is a 1920 photo, which depicts a herding dog identical to those currently recovered. Further photographic evidence has also been found for each subsequent decade, documenting a breed that was present throughout the 20th century in pastoralism at various locations on the mountains of origin. The origin of the breed is traditionally told by three hypotheses :
(1) direct descent from domesticated Apennine wolves
(2) a strain of Reggian dogs was revived by the sons of females who mated with wild wolves during transhumance to the Maremma
(3) from a line of large primitive lupoid wild dogs from the Valle del Secchia (Triassic Gessi), captured, domesticated and placed in the medium-sized Reggio dog strain.
The third hypothesis is highlighted by the last captures of wild dogs in the sixties, which probably created the variability that still exists, denoted by the presence of physically slimmer, wilder specimens, as well as by a bark similar to the wolf's yawn.

In the early years of the twentieth century, when in the mountains of Reggio Emilia there were 60000 sheep with an average of 50 head of flock, calculating that shepherds routinely used from 1 to 3 dogs per flock, it is assumed that the lupine dogs were Reggiani from 1200 to 3600 specimens, plus another 100 specimens used for guarding and with cattle herds. With the drastic reduction in Apennine pastoralism in the mid-twentieth century, Reggiani lupine dogs were reduced to the risk of extinction and the few surviving specimens remained confined to several isolated valleys where they were preserved assuming the name. In Val Bona (municipality of Collagna) and Val d'Asta (municipality of Villa Minozzo), in Ventasso (municipality of Ramiseto), the search for survivors of Costa de 'Grassi specimens (town of Castelnuovo' Monti), carried out by Cristian Ielli, is leading the way into the 21st century in the recovery of the breed historically known as "Luvin", which has changed its name to "Chien Lupino del Gigante" ("Giant" is the nickname of Cusna, the highest peak in the Reggiano Apennines ). According to research carried out by Cristian Ielli since 1997, the recovery effort is currently focusing on a population estimated at 150-200 pure specimens. This hypothesis is based on Cristian Ielli's own and/or breeding standard base samples, as well as others scattered around the place of origin, with 17 adult specimens measured, plus 2 other adults and a few juveniles observed, for a total of 25 samples examined (13-17% of the currently estimated population). A few specimens were also observed working on the herd and in the guardhouse.

General appearance

A hardy, medium-sized dog, slightly elongated, agile and solid, harmonious, both short and long; the typicality of the giant lupine dog that makes it resemble wild species of the gray wolf of the Apennine subspecies, historically transmitted by centuries spontaneous natural functional selection and / or a department, circumscribed to the delimited area of origin, it is very different in appearance from the general of other breeds of canilupo instead obtained after a recent and short hybridology of experimental selection induced for purposes not livestock grazing (but military or other), the two breeds already officially recognized by the FCI are the Dutch Saarloos wolfdog and the Czechoslovakian wolfdog, in addition to the unrecognized Italian Lupo and American wolfdog, as well as the lesser-known Chinese wolfdog, South African wolfdog and Russian wolfdog (also the Russian Jackal). It also differs from the more closely related (in geography, history, training and function) Cane Toccatore or Paratore found in Abruzzo.

Important proportions

Length of trunk from point of shoulder to point of buttock slightly greater than height at withers (10% to 13%).
Chest height slightly less than half the height at the withers (from 42% to 48% of the height at the withers).
Muzzle length less than half total head length (skull-to-muzzle ratio 55-45 to 60-40).

Behaviour / temperament

Very affectionate with children, playful and outgoing up to the age of two, at full maturity he's thoughtful but in command he becomes impetuous and fiery, the male is territorial, in the family he generally attaches himself to one person who considers his herd leader, while in the other family he reserves a respect almost equal to indifference, among fellows he tends to create a bond between a male and a female.

Head

Cranial region

Head
Cone-shaped; total length less than 5/10 of height at withers (43% to 49% of height at withers).
Skull
Slightly ovoid skull, longer than it is wide; direction of craniofacial axes slightly divergent; upper skull profile slightly convex, almost flat. Bizygomatic width slightly more or less than half the total head length (skull ranging from 45% to 55% of total head length); frontal sinuses poorly developed; metopic suture well accentuated; occipital process poorly marked.
Stop
Slightly accentuated.

Facial region

Nose
Large; the upper profile of the nasal tube continues and does not extend beyond the vertical line in front of the lips; black pigmentation; open nostrils.
Muzzle
Shorter than the skull (40-45% of total head length); very deep; broad at the base with lateral faces slightly convergent to each other, without becoming too pointed; straight or slightly chinned nasal reed; lower profile of the muzzle given by the straight lower margin of the mandible.
Lips
The lower margin of the upper lips, seen from the front, is in a straight line; sufficiently thick; adherent to the jaws with no visible labial commissure; black pigmentation.
Jaws and teeth
Strong jaws; complete dentition, with remarkably well-developed white teeth; regularly aligned incisors with scissor bite.
Cheeks
Normally developed, therefore not protruding.
Eyes
Slightly small; almond-shaped opening; brown iris ranging from light to dark, bilateral (homochromatic) or unilateral (heterochromatic), in which case a light blue eye; eye bulb not prominent; semi-lateral position; palpebral rims well adherent to eyeball and black pigmentation; lively expression, strong beating.
Ears
Inserted high; naturally carried upright with inner side facing forward, positioned slightly obliquely outwards; triangular shape; broad-based with thick, rigid cartilage; short to medium length (longer length tolerated).

Neck

Slightly convex upper profile; length almost equal to the total length of the head; carried straight with well-developed muscles; close-fitting skin.

Body

Body
Inserted in the rectangle, for the length measured from the end of the shoulder to the end of the buttock slightly greater than the height at the withers (from 10% to 13%).
Topline
Straight in the dorsal tract; slightly convex in the lumbar tract; with the front of the croup (ilio) at the same level as or slightly above the withers.
Withers
Slightly elevated on the rear line; harmoniously joins the neck.
Back
Straight; strong muscles; longer than the loins.
Loin
Short; very broad; very muscular to make them slightly arched.
Croup
Follows the line of the loins; well sloped to the horizontal at 20-25° from hip to tail insertion and at 40-45° from ileum to ischium; longer than broad; well muscled.
Chest
At least 5/10 of the height at the withers to make the lumbar region short back; a little more or less than a third of the height at the withers; reaching down to the elbows, it is slightly less than half the height at the withers (41% to 48% of the height at the withers); ribs well encircled; chest sufficiently broad, with a long sternal region and a sternum handlebar not prominent beyond the point of the shoulders.
Underline and belly
The sternal line rises slightly towards the abdomen, which is therefore not very far away; sides with slightly accentuated recess.

Tail

This is the continuous croup line, which is why it is set low; it tapers slightly towards the tip; long to fall to the hock; thick and robust; covered with short or long hair, depending on the variety of coat; carried scimitar-shaped or in the form of a crescent or loop, being broad or narrow at the tip.

Limbs

Forequarters

Generality
Perfectly in a row both seen from the front and from the side; height at the elbow just over half the height at the withers (from 52% to 59% of the height at the withers).
Shoulders
Long, 1/4 the height at the withers; sloping at 50° -55° to the horizon; well-developed musculature; scapulo-humeral angle of 100° -110°.
Upper arm
Longer than the shoulder; inclined at 50°-55° to the horizon; well-developed musculature.
Elbows
Parallel to the median plane of the body; humero-radial angle 140° -145°.
Forearm
Longer than the upper arm; lean musculature; robust bone structure.
Carpal
Almost as wide as the very thick forearm.
Pastern
Almost as wide as the forearm; slightly bent.
Forefeet
Oval; toes well arched and joined; nails preferably pigmented with black; plantar pads pigmented, robust and black.

Hindquarters

Generality
Perfectly in a row both from the side and from the rear.
Upper thigh
Long, 1/3 the height at the withers; broad; highly developed musculature; inclined over 60° to the horizon; coxo-femoral angle 100° -105°.
Lower thigh
Less long than the thigh; inclined at 55°-60° to the horizontal; well-developed musculature; robust bone structure.
Stifle
Parallel to the median plane of the body; femoral-tibial angle 115-120°.
Metatarsus
Its length is such as to place the point of the hock at a distance from the ground slightly greater than 25% of the height at the withers; sufficiently wide; vertical and therefore perfectly in position seen from the side and from behind.
Hock
Thicker than wide; tibio-tarsal angle 145° -150°.
Hind feet
With all the same characteristics as the front feet.

Gait and movement

Very elastic walk and trot; the characteristic gait is a resistant trot over long distances; with the peculiarity that the hind legs converge inwards, keeping them slightly oblique; at the canter, it jumps elegantly, touching the ground lightly, even at high speed.

Skin

Taut and adherent in all areas, not too thick to hide the chiseled bones.

Coat

Hair
Two varieties, short-haired and long-haired.
Short, unshaven hair, well adherent, rough-textured, with woolly undercoat; the short hair as a whole is very dense.
Long coat : Medium-long coat, but with variable lengths of lesser or greater length than the semi-long cape variety, follows the lines of the body, without being wavy; its texture is rough, while the undercoat is woolly; the whole coat is very thick; forms a slight collar; the skull is covered with semi-long hair that hides the base of the ears, while the muzzle has short hair; the ear is covered with fine, short hair; the tail is furnished with long hair; on the rear edges of the limbs, the hair forms bangs; rarer is the slightly curly hair, which is admitted.
Colour
All colors and combinations are permitted. The most characteristic and widespread is the classic lupin, with the presence of more or less distributed black, sometimes even with traces of bluebird; it can be white or black, but also brown, reddish, copper, gray, orange, gray, ivory and all other shades and tints; the multicolor can be tabby and with all other combinations, without or with white on the muzzle, neck, chest and legs.

Size and weight

Height at withers
Males from 52 to 58 cm; females from 48 to 54 cm; lower or higher heights are permitted, provided the specimens are proportionate and functional, with good movement; the size indicated is the classic size for herding sheep and goats, while the larger size is also historically indicated only for herding cattle.
Weight
In proportion to height at withers; approx. 20-30 kg.

Faults

• Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog and its ability to perform its traditional work.
• Faults listed should be in degree of seriousness.

General faults

 Head slightly shorter than the indicated ratio to height at withers.
 Skull slightly wider than the indicated ratio of total head length.
 Muzzle slightly shorter than the indicated ratio of skull length.
 Parallel axes of skull and face.
 Nose protrudes beyond vertical lip line.
 Lighter pigmented nose, provided the palpebral and labial rhytids are well pigmented with black.
 Light pigmented lips, provided that the nose and palpebral rhytids are well pigmented with black.
 Absence of a first premolar (PM1).
 Pincer bite, that is upper incisor edge opposite lower incisor edge.
 Ears a little long.
 Undercoat not very thick.
 Light, floating outer layer.
 Construction a little heavy and coarse.
 Slightly longer trunk.

Serious faults

 Head much shorter than the indicated ratio of height to withers.
 Skull much wider than the indicated ratio of total head length.
 Rounded skull.
 Round eyes.
 Eyes with prominent eyeballs.
 Very pronounced stop.
 Muzzle much shorter than the indicated ratio of skull length.
 Muzzle not full of bony substrate, light.
 Very short tail.
 Two or more teeth missing.
 Inverted scissor bite, that is, posterior edge of lower incisors in close contact with anterior edge of upper incisors.
 Poorly developed teeth (microdontia).
 Non-rough texture covering hairs.
 Light, floating coat in the long-haired variety.
 Total absence of undercoat.
 Very heavy, coarse construction.
 Very elongated or square trunk (length of trunk from point of shoulder to point of buttock equal to height at withers).

Disqualifying faults

 Aggressive or too shy.
 Non-typical copy.
 Defects prohibiting use in reproduction : enognatism; prognathism; hanging ears; converging craniofacial axes; total depigmentation of nose and/or palpebral margins (flesh-colored); monorchidism; cryptorchidism.
 Aggressive or too shy.
 Non-typical copy.
 Defects prohibiting use in reproduction : enognatism; prognathism; hanging ears; converging craniofacial axes; total depigmentation of nose and/or palpebral margins (flesh-colored); monorchidism; cryptorchidism.

NB :

• Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
• The above mentioned faults when occurring to a highly marked degree or frequently are disqualifying.
• Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
• Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.

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