Dachshund

FCI standard Nº 148

Origin
Germany
Translation
Anke Masters / Official language (DE)
Group
Group 4 Dachshunds
Working
With working trial
Acceptance on a definitive basis by the FCI
Saturday 01 January 1955
Publication of the official valid standard
Tuesday 25 May 2021
Last update
Monday 14 March 2022
En français, cette race se dit
Teckel
Diese Norm ist in deutscher Sprache sichtbar
Dackel
En español, esta raza se dice
Perro salchicha
In het Nederlands, wordt dit ras gezegd
Dashond

Usage

Hunting dog above and below ground.

Brief historical summary

The Dachshund, also called Dackel or Teckel, has been known since the Middle Ages. From the « Bracken », dogs were constantly bred which were specially suitable for hunting below ground. From these short legged dogs, the Dachshund evolved and was recognised as one of the most versatile and useful breeds of hunting dogs. He also has excellent achievements above ground, hunting while giving tongue, searching and tracking wounded game. The oldest Club devoted to the breeding of Dachshunds is the « Deutsche Teckelklub » e.V., founded in 1888.
For decades the Dachshund has been bred in three sizes (Teckel, Miniature Teckel and Rabbit Teckel) and in three different kinds of coat (Smooth-haired, Wire-haired and Long-haired), resulting in nine varieties.

General appearance

Low, short legged, elongated but compact build, very muscular with cheeky, challenging head carriage and alert facial expression. His general appearance is typical of his sex. In spite of his legs being short in relation to the long body, he is very mobile and lithe.

Important proportions

With the distance above ground level of about one third of the height at withers, the body length (from the point of manubrium of sternum to the point of the buttock) should be in harmonious relation to height at withers, about 1 to 1,7 - 1,8.

Behaviour / temperament

Friendly by nature, neither nervous nor aggressive, with even temperament. Passionate, persevering and fast hunting dog with an excellent nose.

Head

Cranial region

Head
Elongated as seen from above and in profile. Tapering uniformly towards the nose leather yet not pointed. Superciliary ridges clearly defined. Nasal cartilage and bridge of nose, long and narrow.
Skull
Rather flat, gradually merging with the slightly arched nasal bridge. 
Stop
Only indicated.

Facial region

Nose
Leather well developed.
Muzzle
Long, sufficiently broad and strong. Mouth can be opened wide, at thelevel of the vertical of theeye.
Lips
Taut fitting, covering the lower jaw well.
Jaws and teeth
Well developed upper and lower jaw. Scissor bite, even and closing firmly. Ideally, complete set of 42 teeth according to requirements for a dog’s mouth with strong Canines exactly fitting into each other.
Eyes
Medium size, oval, set well apart, with clear energetic yet friendly expression. Not piercing. Colour bright, dark reddish brown to blackish brown in all coat colours. Wall, fish or pearl eyes in dapple dogs are not desired but may be tolerated.
Ears
Set on high, not too far forward. Sufficiently long but not exaggerated. Rounded, not narrow, pointed or folded. Mobile with front edge lying close to cheek.

Neck

Sufficiently long, muscular. Tight fitting skin on throat. Lightly arched nape of neck, carried freely and high.

Body

Topline
Blending harmoniously from neck to slightly sloping croup.
Withers
Pronounced.
Back
Behind the high withers, topline running from the thoracic vertebrae straight or slightly inclined to the rear. Firm and well muscled.
Loin
Strongly muscled. Sufficiently long.
Croup
Broad and sufficiently long, not horizontal or sloping too much.
Chest
Sternum well developed and so prominent that slight depressions appear on either side. The ribcage, seen from the front, is oval. Seen from above and the side, it is spacious, giving plenty of space for the heart and lung development. Ribs carried well back. With correct length and angulation of shoulder blade and upper arm, the front leg covers the lowest point of the sternal line in profile. Dewlap not pronounced.
Underline and belly
Slight tuck up.

Tail

Not set on too high, carried in continuation of topline. A slight curve in the last third of the tail is permitted.

Limbs

Forequarters

Generality
Strongly muscled, well angulated. Seen from front, clean front legs, standing straight with good strength of bone; feet pointing straight forward.
Shoulders
Pliant muscles. Long sloping shoulder blade, fitting close to chest.
Upper arm
Equal in length to shoulder blade, set almost at right angle to same. Strong boned and well muscled, close fitting to ribs but free in movement.
Elbows
Turning neither in nor out.
Forearm
Short, yet so long that the dog’s distance from the ground is about one third of its height at withers. As straight as possible.
Carpal
Slightly closer together than the shoulder joints.
Pastern
Seen from the side, should be neither steep nor noticeably inclined forward.
Forefeet
Toes close together, well arched with strong, resistant, well cushioned pads and short strong nails. The fifth toe has no function but must not be removed.

Hindquarters

Generality
Strongly muscled, in correct proportion to forequarters. Strong angulation of stifles and hock joints. Hindlegs parallel standing neither close nor wide apart.
Upper thigh
Should be of good length and well muscled.
Lower thigh
Short, almost at right angle to upper thigh. Well muscled.
Stifle
Broad and strong with pronounced angulation.
Metatarsus
Relatively long, mobile towards lower thigh. Lightly curved forward.
Hock
Clean with strong tendons.
Hind feet
Four close knit toes, well arched. Standing firmly on strong pads.

Gait and movement

Movement should be ground covering, flowing and energetic, with far reaching front strides without much lift, and strong rear drive movement should produce slightly springy transmission to backline. Tail should be carried in harmonious continuation of backline, slightly sloping. Front and hindlegs have parallel movement.

Skin

Tight fitting.

Coat

Smooth-haired

Hair
Short, dense, shiny, smooth fitting, tight and harsh. Not showing any bald patches anywhere.
Tail : Fine, fully but not too profusely coated. Somewhat longer guard hair on underside is not a fault.
Colour
a) One-coloured : Red. Interspersed black hairs permissible. However, a clean dark colour is preferable. A small white spot (up to 3 cm diameter) is only permissible on the chest. Nose, nails and pads black; reddish-brown is not desirable.
b) Two-coloured : Deep black or brown, each with tan markings (the darker, the better and as clean as possible), over eyes, on sides of muzzle and of the lip, on inner edge of ears, on forechest, on inside and rear side of legs, on the feet, around the anus and from there reaching to about one third or one half of the underside of the tail. Nose, nails and pads black in dogs with black base colour, brown, in dogs with brown base colour.
A small white spot (up to 3 cm diameter), is only permissible on the chest. Too wide spread, as well as insufficient tan markings are highly undesirable.
c) Colour pattern Dapple (Merle) : The base colour is always the dark colour (black or brown). Exception: red dapples (red with dark spots). Desired are irregular grey but also beige spots (large patches not desired). Neither the dark nor the light colour is predominant. For nose, nails and pads see under a) and b).
d) Colour pattern Brindle: The colour of a brindle Dachshund is red with dark brindle. Nose, nails and pads are black.
All previously not mentioned colours and colour patterns are disqualifying. Lack of pigmentation is highly undesirable.

Wire-haired

Hair
With exception of muzzle, eyebrows and leathers, perfectly even close fitting, dense wiry topcoat with undercoat. The muzzle has a clearly defined beard.
Eyebrows are bushy. On the leathers, the coat is shorter than on the body, almost smooth.
Tail : Well and evenly covered with close fitting coat.
Colour
a) One-coloured: Red. Interspersed black hairs permissible. However, a clean dark color is preferable. A small white spot (up to 3 cm diameter) is only permissible on the chest. Nose, nails and pads black; reddish-brown is not desirable.
b) Multi-coloured: Wild boar, brown wild boar, black and tan, brown and tan. Tan markings (the darker, the better and as clean as possible), above eyes, on sides of muzzle and of the lip, on inner edge of ears, on forechest, on inside and rear side of legs, on the feet, around the anus and from there reaching to about one third or one half of the underside of the tail. Nose, nails and pads black in wild boar and black and tan dogs, brown, in brown wild boar and brown and tan dogs. A small white spot (up to 3 cm diameter), is only permissible on the chest. Too widespread, as well as insufficient tan markings are highly undesirable.
c) Colour pattern Dapple (Merle): Colour as described under a) and b). The base colour is always the dark colour (wild boar, black or brown). Exception: red dapples (red with dark spots). Desired are irregular grey but also beige spots. Neither the dark nor the light colour is predominant. For nose, nails and pads see under a) and b).
d) Colour pattern Brindle: The colour of the brindle Dachshund is red with dark brindle. Nose, nails and pads are black.
All previously not mentioned colours and colour patterns are disqualifying. Lack of pigmentation is highly undesirable.

Long-haired

Hair
The sleek shiny coat, with undercoat and close fitting to body, is longer at the throat and on underside of body. On leathers the hair must extend beyond the lower edge of ears (feathering). Distinct feathers on rear side of legs. Achieves its greatest length on underside of tail and there forms a veritable flag.
Colour
a) One-coloured: Red. Red with black overcoat. However, a clean dark colour is preferable. A small white spot (up to 3 cm diameter) is permissible on the chest. Nose, nails and pads black; reddish-brown is not desirable.
b) Two-coloured: Deep black or brown, each with tan markings (the darker, the better and as clean as possible), over eyes, on sides of muzzle and of the lip, on inner edge of ears, on forechest, on inside and rear side of legs, on the feet, around the anus and from there reaching to about one third or one half of the underside of the tail. Nose, nails and pads black in dogs with black base colour, brown, in dogs with brown base colour. A small white spot (up to 3 cm diameter), is only permissible on the chest. Too widespread, as well as insufficient tan markings are highly undesirable.
c) Colour pattern Dapple (Merle): The base colour is always the dark colour (black or brown). Exception: red dapples (red with dark spots). Desired are irregular grey but also beige spots (large patches not desired). Neither the dark nor the light colour is predominant. For nose, nails and pads see under a) and b).
d) Colour pattern Brindle: The colour of the brindle Dachshund is red with dark brindle. Nose, nails and pads are black.
All previously not mentioned colours and colour patterns are disqualifying. Lack of pigmentation is highly undesirable.

Size and weight

Height at withers
Chest Circumference measured when at least 15 months old, from highest point of the withers to the lowest point of the chest (with little tense tape measure).
Standard Dachshund : Males : over 37 cm – up to 47 cm. Females : over 35 cm – up to 45 cm.
Miniature Dachshund : Males : over 32 cm – up to 37 cm. Females : over 30 up – to 35 cm.
Rabbit Dachshund : Males : 27 cm – up to 32 cm. Females : 25 cm – up to 30 cm.

Faults

• Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog and its ability to perform its traditional work.
• Faults listed should be in degree of seriousness.

General faults

M3 (Molar 3) are not to be considered when judging - Lack of 2PM1 (Premolar 1) is not to be penalised - The absence of PM2 should be regarded as a fault, if other than M3, no other teeth are missing, also a departure from the correctly closing scissor bite.

Serious faults

 Weak, long-legged or body trailing on ground.
 The absence of teeth other than those described among « faults » or « eliminating faults ».
 Wall eye in any colour other than dapple.
 Pointed, very folded ear leathers.
 Body suspended between shoulders.
 Hollow back, roach back.
 Weak loins.
 Marked running up at rear (croup higher than withers).
 Chest too weak.
 Flanks with whippety-like tuck up.
 Badly angulated fore- and hindquarters.
 Narrow hindquarters, lacking muscle.
 Cow hocks or bow legs.
 Feet turning markedly inwards or outwards.
 Splayed toes.
 Heavy, clumsy, waddling movement.

Faults for the coat

Smooth-haired
 Coat too fine or thin; Bald patches on leathers (leather ear), other bald areas.
 Coat much too coarse and much too profuse.
 Brush like tail.
 Tail partially or wholly hairless.
 Black colour without any marking (« Brand »).
Wire-haired
 Soft coat, whether long or short.
 Long coat, standing away from body in all directions.
 Curly or wavy coat.
 Soft coat on head.
 Flag on tail.
 Lack of beard.
 Lack of undercoat.
 Short coat.
Long-haired
 Coat of equal length all over body.
 Wavy or shaggy coat.
 Lack of flag (tail).
 Lack of overhanging feathering on ears.
 Smooth coat.
 Short coat.
 Pronounced parting in coat on back.
 Hair too long between toes.

Disqualifying faults

 Aggressive or overly shy.
 Untypical specimen.
 Overshot or undershot mouth, wry mouth.
 Faulty position of the lower canines.
 Absence of one or more canines; absence of one or more incisors.
 Lack of other premolars or molars - Exceptions : The two PM1, one PM2 without consideration of M3, as mentioned under Faults.
 Chest : Sternum cut off.
 Any fault of tail.
 Very loose shoulders.
 Knuckling over in pasterns.
 Black colour without tan markings (Brand); white colour with or without tan markings (Brand).
 Colours other than those listed under “Colour”.

NB :

• Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
• The above mentioned faults when occurring to a highly marked degree or frequently are disqualifying.
• Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
• Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.

Bibliography

http://www.fci.be/

 

Detailed history

The Dachshund is really a dog apart, and he proves it. If not, in what capacity would he benefit for himself a group in the classification of dog breeds, the fourth? There is no dog more apt, by its very special morphology, to hunt underground: he can pass into the densest dens, and the conformation of his forearm makes him a remarkable burrower. However, the Dachshund is not a Terrier, because it descends in line with the current dogs. He also hunts hare and even big game like the latter.

That this representative of the canine species; the one with the legs proportionally the shortest in relation to the body; being qualified as a "running" dog may surprise. But it will be recalled that this is hunting shooting and not hunting. A game animal knowing that it is pursued by a small, slow, and very screaming dog like the Dachshund does not particularly worry; fleeing unhurriedly, he does not take heed that the Dachshund brings him safely within range of the hunter. And even if the Dachshund is not classed as a common dog, its current dog nature is also demonstrated by its origin and history.

It is indisputable that there were very early dog bassets. Professor Edmond Dechambre says that we found in a Neolithic cave in Vence, bones of basset dogs. We can recognize indisputable bassets in Egyptian art: the first are located in the Middle Kingdom, under the twelfth dynasty (that of Amenemhat and Sesostris, the twentieth and nineteenth centuries before) J.- C.). Coincidently, it seems that this Egyptian dog, especially assigned to the guard, was called "tekal". It should not, however, be concluded that he is the real ancestor of the Dachshund, because we then lose his trace. It would be really difficult to establish a historical link between the Tekal and the Dachshund.

More serious is the track of the dog common European basset, appeared in the Middle Ages. The hunters of this time took advantage of these "mutants" which are the bassets (they present a partial achondroplasia which reduces the length of their members). They were not only a curiosity of nature, but they could prove to be incomparably useful for hunting underground. Thus, from the fourteenth century, we find in the Germanic writings the term "Dachshund" (literally badger dog), which is the ancient name of the Dachshund.

This use of the basset is attested by Fouilloux, who writes: "Venus from the countries of Flanders and Artois, some are torso-legged and commonly short-haired, the others straight-legged and are willingly large-haired as barbets. Those with twisted legs flow more easily into the ground than others and are better for badgers. Artois and Flanders are not far removed from the homeland of the Dachshund, Germany, a country almost unaware of the art of hunting and in which, obviously, we have been particularly interested in selecting dogs lighters and bassets more useful to shooters than fast and big "forensic" dogs.

In a very complete study on the digging, René Depoux, president of the French Club of the Dachshund, quotes several representations or writings of the XVIIIe century concerning the Dachshund: "In 1719, we have the first work of which an important part is devoted to our dog: Der Vollkommene Teutscher jager, edited by Flemming. An engraving published in France in 1723 shows us a hunt underground with Dachshunds, which seems to prove that the Germans begin to export their dogs in the early eighteenth century. "

In support of this possible "export", mention will be made of the famous painting by Jean-Baptiste Oudry (1686 - 1755), the painter of dogs and hunts of Louis XV. This painting is about a splendid basset which offers a striking resemblance to the Dachshund, whereas it is quite different from the Bassets of Artois and Normandy, in particular by its morphology, the shape of its head, its ears and its color (black and fire). The decor, consisting of a rifle and a hare and a pheasant hanging on a nail, leaves no doubt about the work done by this dog.

If the Dachshund is a very old basset, what breed is the short-legged version? Among the German dogs, there are many breeds with similarities to the Dachshund: blood dogs, such as Hanover and Bavaria, and especially the Bracken; a term that should not be translated by Braques but whose French equivalent is more surely, according to the suggestion of Raymond Triquet, "Brachets", which are between the dogs of blood and the Dachshund for the length of their legs. Thus, one can quote the Deutsche Bracke, the Dachsbracke of Westphalia and that of Tyrol: silhouette, head, ears, colors, common between these races and the Dachshund, are as many arguments in favor of this filiation. Dachshunds, however, are lighter in shape, even the late Dachshund type "heavy" (weighing up to 13 kilos). It can be explained by a contribution of Pinscher, known for its bite and, for this reason, crossed with the Dachshund for the use of the latter against the badger.

Although the Dachshund's vocation as a hunter is very old, his role as a pet dog is not recent either. It can be said that it came to him during his passage from Germany to England. In 1839, Queen Victoria met Prince Albert of Saxony Coburg Gotha. Indisputably, the favorite dogs of the prince pleased her from the start, since she brought back one, the famous Dashy. And the next year, when she marries the prince, he is escorted by a pack of Dachshunds. Later, Queen Victoria will give her favors to many other races, which she will help to impose in England. But it is a fact that the Dachshund has had primacy.

Thus, along with his feats of hunting in Germany, the Dachshund becomes a real pleasure dog in Britain. From 1866, we see him appear in the English exhibitions. In 1873, the Kennel Club officially recognized him as a race (after the exhibition at the Crystal Palace). The British Club, founded in 1881, is the first of its kind in the world. We can finally note that, in a special exhibition of the race that takes place in 1886 and where there are two hundred competitors, the first champion is a certain Maximus, raised by William Arkwright.

Also Stanley Dangerfield may not be entirely wrong when he says that "England can claim the major role in the development of this breed, which owes the world popularity she enjoys." It was through England that Dachshunds arrived in the United States and Canada from 1870. It was observed that a certain Dr. Tawdel first imported it for hunting, and that W. Loeffer began to exhibited from 1880. In 1895, the American Race Club was created.

If the English had a major role in the Anglo-Saxon countries, for the rest of the world the Dachshund must be returned to Germany. In this country, his vocation as a company was quickly asserted, as revealed by von Daake's recommendation, written in 1860: "The Dachshund is to be raised like a hunting dog. The German Club was founded in 1888 by Emile Ilgner, to whom we owe the first work devoted to the Dachshund (in 1896). By Teckel, or Dachshund; the two terms being equally used, Dachshund rather to the north, Dachshund further to the south; here it is mainly the Dachshund with short hair, undoubtedly the original variety. However, those with long hair and long hair did not wait for the arrival of cynophilia to see the light of day.

The Long-haired Dachshund was already present in the 18th century: an engraving by JE Ridinger (1698-1767), for example, shows a specimen with fringed tail, legs and flanks. It is because this variety of Dachshund has been the host of princely and royal courts that its history is known. Thanks to the researches of R. Klotz, we know that under the reign of Johann Georg II (1660 - 1693), prince of Anhalt-Dassau, we already crossed the Dachshund with small German Spaniels, in order to give him a character more docile. At the end of the eighteenth century, these crosses led to the creation of a well-established and well-known line, under the leadership of a certain AW Leopold Wöpke, hence the name "Wöpke race" given to these Dachshunds. long-haired. It seems, however, that this stream of blood had almost disappeared at the end of the nineteenth century.

The "Rangger race", named Joseph Rangger, of the Bavarian royal house, was also a long-haired dachshund. King Maximilian I of Bavaria (1779 - 1825) greatly appreciated this type of dog, which Rangger improved from 1858 and which appears to be at the origin of most of the first long-haired dachshunds registered on the registers of a club. special, reserved for this variety in 1888. This club was quickly absorbed by the Dachshund Club. One of the first and most important breeders of this variety was Baron von Cram.

It can be assumed that the Dachshund is at least as old, but it is clear that its antecedents are much more vague. However, in view of the badger hunt, it was probably not long to notice the beneficial effects of crosses with Pinschers hard-haired, justly known for their bite and their aggressiveness; these dogs, long called "stable griffons", were later named Schnauzers (officialized in 1907). The first mention of a hard-haired Dachshund dates back to 1883: at that time, Captain von Wardenburg exhibited a subject named Mordax, known as resulting from a cross with a hard-haired Pinscher.

Then the selection of this variety appealed to the Schnauzer proper, and also to British Terriers (especially Dandie Dinmont and perhaps Scottish). For a while, some of the peculiarities of these dogs (the Schnauzer's higher stature on the legs, the "soft" hair and the toupee on the Dandie skull) have resurfaced in the Dachshund, but this variety is perfectly fixed. for many decades.

The first standard of the race dates from May 8, 1925. It can be noted that it provided three sizes: the "heavy" type, over 7 kilos (and up to 13 kilos); the "average" type, not exceeding 7 kilos; the "dwarf" type, whose maximum weight was set at 4 kilograms. On May 9, 1947, the German Dachshund Club changed this weight scale in the direction of general relief. Thus, the "standard" type should not exceed 9 kilos and the "dwarf", 4 kilos maximum at eighteen months; The Kaninchenteckel (word for word Dachshund Rabbit) had its maximum weight fixed at 3.5 kg at eighteen months. These varieties still exist, but today, it is no longer the weight that determines whether the dog is dwarf or Kaninchen, but rather the chest perimeter: 35 centimeters for the dwarves and 30 centimeters for the dwarves Kaninchen.

After the Second World War, German livestock grew considerably, reaching 10,000, 15,000 and then 20,000 more births per year. To the point that the breed has figured as the most popular dog in Germany, just after the German Shepherd. As always, this breeding was oriented towards a very rigorous selection and produced lines of great value, able to shine in all the disciplines of hunting in German. And we know that in terms of versatility of hunting dogs, the Germans have very specific and advanced requirements.

Nevertheless, on the other side of the Rhine, there was also a mass breeding, whose aims were other than hunting. Its products, which were not necessarily recognized by the VDH (Verband für das Deutsche Hundeioesen, the equivalent of our Central Canine Society), were registered by unofficial bodies, not admitted by the International Cynological Federation. This phenomenon had a great importance by the number of these dogs that were exported, especially to France, in the years 1960 - 1970, while the vogue of the Dachshund was in full swing in the Hexagon. An example may give an idea of the development of Dachshund farming in Germany: the small village of Gerweiss, in the center of one of the main "production" areas of the Dachshund, could have counted, at one time, almost five hundred breeders specialized in Dachshund for eight hundred inhabitants.

Still in terms of the situation of the breed in its country of origin, another observation is necessary: at the end of the 1930s, the short-haired variety was already joined or even exceeded by the others. This evolution was accentuated in the years 1960 - 1970 with a significant development of the Dachshund and especially a boom of long hair. At present, the hard hair has become the most common variety, and the number of short hair is ten or twelve times lower than that of the other two varieties.

The Dachshund is France's host since 1900, when the first specimens began to be exhibited. For a long time, the Dachshund remained a dog of connoisseurs, dog lovers, hunters, whose objective was to produce beautiful dogs from the best blood currents and at the same time able to illustrate themselves in the events of hunting under Earth. After the Second World War, dog lovers were also interested in its various other uses planned in its country of origin. Thus, from 1961, under the impetus of R. Depoux, tests of "led over the hare", "search of the big game wounded", "work with the wood" were put on foot. These events have been recognized by the German Club and testify to the perfect collaboration and identity of views between the French and German associations.

It should be noted, moreover, that the French Club was one of the first to have a permanent secretariat, whose organization proved sufficiently strong to ensure the management of a Book of Work Origins. an indispensable tool for any rational selection effort in this field. The Club has also been able to develop tattoo identification (instead of the nasal impression), a method that was only adopted much later by the public authorities. To say that the French breeding of Dachshund has quickly reached a high level of quality is therefore perfectly in keeping with the truth.

At the same time, the Dachshund; and mainly the shorthaired variety; was the subject of a pretty fantastic vogue. Many personalities of the show adopted this dog with the funny silhouette and radically different from that of all the other dogs, and thus helped to popularize it. Of course, this craze resulted in the appearance of numbers whose plethora was equal to mediocrity, as well as misunderstandings resulting from a lack of knowledge of the true nature of the Dachshund. And it is a small consolation to say that this situation has been the same in many other countries, including; as we've seen ; in Germany.

There is no doubt that hunting is not the sole use of the Dachshund, nor its exclusive outlet: the digging, the search for the big game wounded, its great specialties, concern only a limited number of lovers. His wood hunting and brushing skills are undeniable, but the competition is tough, the choice is very wide. The morphology and character of the Dachshund are not incompatible with a companion function, a function in which this old hunter is not new.

The dachshund has twenty-seven varieties. Three weight categories, three types of hair, three color ranges: this could encourage the distribution of roles. Certainly, the standard dachshund fits the hunter better, the long-haired dachshund is more like a hound. In the same way, one can highlight certain differences of character between the hard hair and the long hair. However, we must not lose sight of the unity of the breed, which is all the more difficult to maintain because the varieties are numerous and the roles, aptitudes and uses are varied.

This preamble was necessary to explain that utilitarian abilities must be manifested in a certain proportion of dachshunds, regardless of their size or their hair. It is thus Dwarves who succeed in the most difficult tests and Kaninchens who successfully participate in rabbit trials for them. It is always possible; this is proved; to obtain, from working lines, perfect dogs with regard to their aesthetics and the balance of their character, easy to handle for an inexperienced person.

In addition, these dogs can adapt to a wide variety of environments. The opposite, that is to say, to find the original abilities to work when the race is only selected for its beauty and in a role of amenity, is much more difficult to reach, even utopian. In this respect, the example of Charles Huge is typical. This well-known Belgian cynologist and breeder wanted, within his Dachshunds breeding farm, to select subjects suitable for work competitions. After years of unsuccessful efforts, he gave up and acquired Dachshunds for work. The morphology of the latter was undoubtedly not irreproachable, but in a short time he was able to obtain brilliant subjects in both the dueling trials and winning first prizes on the show rings.

Let's start with the services a hunter can ask a well-born Dachshund. The Dachshund is one of three breeds (with the Fox Terrier and Jagd Terrier) regularly used for digging: most breeds of Terriers now have only the name. The Dachshund is highly appreciated in this area for its ability to penetrate all burrows, its incomparable aptitude to bury, its behavior both courageous and biting, but also the prudence and the intelligence which it knows how to demonstrate, if necessary , which prevents him from being crippled.

Its use as a "red dog" is traditional in Germany and tends to spread in France. The specialists of the question do not intend to reserve this discipline to any race whatsoever, even if it is exclusively dog of blood. Many dogs of the most diverse breeds can give excellent results in expert hands. In France, the main concern is to train dogs to this specialty rather than to find suitable dogs.

However, Dachshunds can boast of indisputable predispositions and benefits for this function. Moreover, gamekeepers and employees of Water and Forests have not been mistaken and have made much of it for many years. For its part, the book The Search for Big Game Wounded (Ed Marc Titeux, Sarreguemines) says about Dachshunds: "Their passion for hunting, their low height at the withers predispose them for blood research. Very loud on the voice, enduring, nose close to the ground, they often equal, if not exceed, the performance of the dogs of red Hanover. "

The Dachshund, on condition of being very screaming and having received a serious education (stop to order, reminder), can give the greatest satisfaction in the exploration of cutlery and hedgerows and in the scrub. He is the equal of a Spaniel, with a noisier and more supported quest (which is an advantage), and such a good rabbit or pheasant specialist.

Rarer in France is the hunt for big game (wild boar, deer) and deer, but it is widely practiced in the Rhine (the Pirsch), especially with Dachshunds. Again, a dog from proven lines, trained "on the button", is likely to surprise by the extent of its capabilities. It is the same in the hunting beaten. Still in Germany, some hunters pitch their dachshunds in the care of the game and dead game: very reckless, then, who would dare to approach it.

Finally, the breed was used for truffle research, as well as for drug detection (in Canada), because its small size allows it to sneak up everywhere. Two special uses, to be honest, but could we have considered them if the breed did not have excellent lines of work?

Still, most buyers of Dachshunds look for a companion above all else. If they only want an original and submissive dog, there may be other choices. But if they want a real personality and they themselves have enough to impose some discipline on their dog, the Dachshund is no doubt good for them.

In Great Britain, the Dachshund is certainly of a less assertive temperament. The breed is exclusively companion, and if its physique has not been distorted by the breeders (at most we can observe that it is even more "at ground level" than elsewhere), its character is noticeably weakened. This is so true that Tony Wilkinson, in a recent work, has been able to assert Dachshunds that, "thanks to their always equal temper, their education is a mere formality".

On the Continent, the Dachshund has nothing of an obtuse mind. On the contrary, he is malicious, voluntary, cabotin, even cabochard, stubborn and independent, but also curious, reputed to demonstrate a remarkable sense of initiative, while being full of energy and energy. . It is a dog with which one does not get bored, which astonishes very often by his very sharp intelligence, in a word a very endearing dog. It is suitable for a somewhat firm master, with a minimum of natural authority (that is to say the very opposite of authoritarianism and brutality). He is finally very sociable, although he can have his preferences and be suspicious and even downright hostile towards certain people. In general, he is also an excellent alarm, being afraid of nothing and barking only wisely. When he is used to living with children, he is an excellent companion for them. The Dachshund, well known and widespread, is still as amazing and original.

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